TERRESTRIAL Geology and Tectonics

Ansell, J. H. and Bannister, S. C. 1996. Shallow morphology of the subducted Pacific Plate along the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, v. 93: p. 3-20.

Arnadottir, T., Thornley, S., Pollitz, F.F. and Darby, D.J. 1999. Spatial and temporal strain rate variations at the northern Hikurangi margin, New Zealand. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104: p. 4931-4944.

Bannister, S.C. 1989. Gravity interpretation profile across Hikurangi subduction zone using seismic constraints; Hawke's Bay to Hikurangi Trench. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, v.19: p. 385-397.

Berryman, K. R., Ota, Y. and Hull, A. G. 1989. Holocene paleoseismicity in the fold and thrust belt of the Hikurangi subduction zone, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Tectonophysics, v. 163: p. 185-195.

Berryman, K.R. 1993a. Age, height, and deformation of Holocene marine terraces at Mahia Peninsula, Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand. Tectonics, v. 12: p. 1347-1364.

Beryman, K.R. 1993b. Distribution, age, and deformation of late Pleistocene marine terraces at Mahia Peninsula, Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand. Tectonics, v. 12: p. 1365-1379.

Berryman, K.R.; Ota, Y.; Hull, A.G. 1992. Holocene evolution of an estuary on a tectonically rising coast: the Pakarae River locality, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Sedimentary Geology, v. 80: p. 151-165.

Bishop, D.G., 1968. The geology of an area of accelerated erosion at Waerengaokuri, near Gisborne. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 11: p. 551-63.

Black, R. D., 1980. Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary geology of Mangatu State Forest, Raukumara Peninsula, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 23: p. 293-312.

Brown, L.J., 1984. Makauri gravel: a blind aquifer underlying Poverty Bay flats, Gisborne. New Zealand Geological Survey Record, v. 3: p. 69-77.

Brown, L.J., 1995. Holocene shoreline depositional processes at Poverty Bay, a tectonically active area, northeastern North Island, New Zealand. Quaternary International,v. 26: p. 21-33.

Cole, J. W. and Lewis, K. B. 1981. Evolution of the Taupo-Hikurangi subduction system. Tectonophysics,v. 72: p. 1-21.

Darby, D.J. and Meertens, C.M. 1995. Terrestrial and GPS measurements of deformation across the Taupo back arc and Hikurangi forearc regions in New Zealand. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 100: p. 8221-8232.

Davy, B. W. 1992. The influence of subducting plate buoyancy on subduction of the Hikurangi- Chatham Plateau beneath the North Island, New Zealand. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 53: p. 75-91.

Gage, M. and Black, R.D., 1979. Slope-stability and geological investigations at Mangatu State Forest. New Zealand Forest Service, Forest Research Institute, Wellington, Technical Paper 66: 37p.

Gillies, P.N. and Davey, F. J. 1986. Seismic reflection and refraction studies of the Raukumara forearc basin, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics,v. 29: p. 391-403.

Kamp, P. J., 1988. Tectonic geomorphology of the Hikurangi Margin: surface manifestations of different modes of subduction: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie Supplement Band, v. 69: p. 69-86.

Kamp, P.J.J. 1999. Tracking crustal processes by FT thermochronology in a forearc high (Hikurangi margin, New Zealand) involving Cretaceous subduction termination and mid-Cenozoic subduction initiation. Tectonophysics, v. 307: p. 313-343.

Lewis, K.B. and Marshall, B.A. 1996. Seep faunas and other indicators of methane-rich dewatering on New Zealand convergent margins. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 39: p. 181-200.

McLean, R.F. and Davidson, C.F., 1968. The role of mass-movement in shore platform development along the Gisborne coastline, New Zealand. Earth Science Journal, v. 2: p. 15-25.

Moore, P. R. and Mazengarb, C., 1992. Geology and landforms of Raukumara Peninsula. In: Soons, J. M. and Selby, M. J., eds, Landforms of New Zealand, p. 334-343.

Neef, G., Watters, W.A. and Edwards, A.R., 1996. The mid-Castlecliffian Mangatuna Formation of the Gisborne district, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 39: p. 551-558.

Ota, Y., Berryman, K. R., Hull, A. G., Miyauchi,T. and Iso, N., 1988. Age and height distribution of Holocene transgressive deposits in eastern North Island, New Zealand. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 68: p. 135-151.

Ota, Y., Hull, A. G., Iso, N., Ikeda, Y., Moriya, I. and Yoshikawa, T., 1992. Holocene marine terraces on the northeast coast of North Island, New Zealand, and their tectonic significance. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 35: p. 273-288.

Phillips, C. J., 1985. Upper Creataceous and Tertiary geology of the upper Waitahaia River. Raukumara Peninsula, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics,v. 28: p. 594-607.

Pillans, B., 1986. Late Quaternary uplift map for North island, New Zealand. Royal Society of New Zealand Bulletin, v. 24: p. 409-417.

Pullar, W. A. and Warren, W. G., 1968. Regression trend lines of ridges and swales on the emergent beach at Gisborne, New Zealand. Earth Science Journal, v. 2: p. 145-159.

Pullar, W. A. and Penhale, H. R., 1970. Periods of recent infilling of the Gisborne Plains Basin, associated marker beds and changes in shoreline. New Zealand Journal of Science, v. 13: p. 410-434.

Pullar, W. A. and Rijkse, W. C., 1977. Estimation of recent alluvial infilling of Tolaga Bay Flats basin using Waimihia Formation and Taupo Pumice as tephra marker beds. New Zealand Journal of Science, v. 20: p. 49-53.

Pullar, W.A. and Warren, W.G., 1968. Regression trend lines of ridges and swales on the emergent beach at Gisborne, New Zealand. Earth Science Journal, v. 2: p. 145-159.

Reyners, M. 1989. New Zealand seismicity 1964-87; an interpretation. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 32: p. 307-315.

Reyners, M. and McGinty, P., 1999, Shallow subduction tectonics in the Raukumara peninsula, New Zealand, as illustrated by earthquake focal mechanisms. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104: p. 3025-3034.

Smith, R. K., 1988, Poverty Bay, New Zealand: a case of coastal accretion 1886-1975. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, v. 22: p. 135-141.

Taylor, C. B., 1994. Hydrology of the Poverty Bay flats aquifers, New Zealand: recharge mechanisms, evolution of the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon, and ground-water ages. Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand), v. 158: p. 151-185.

Walcott, R.I., 1987. Geodetic strain and the deformational histroy of the North Island of New Zealand during the late Cainozoic, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, v. A321: p. 163-181.

Webb, T.H. and Anderson, H. 1998. Focal mechanisms of large earthquakes in the North Island of New Zealand; slip partitioning at an oblique active margin. Geophysical Journal International, v. 134: p. 40-86.

Yoshikawa, T., Ikeda, Y., Iso, N., Moriya, I., Hull, A.G., and Ota, Y., 1988. Origin and age of erosion surfaces in the upper drainage basin of Waiapu River, northeastern North Island, New Zealand: New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics,v. 31: p. 101-109.
 

Erosion and Sedimentation

Adams, J. 1979. Sediment loads of North Island rivers, New Zealand - a reconnaissance.  Journal of Hydrology ((New Zealand), v. 18: p. 36-48.

Claridge, G. G., 1960. Clay minerals, accelerated erosion, and sedimentation in the Waipaoa River catchment. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 3: p. 184-191.

Crozier, M., 1997, The climate-landslide couple: a southern hemisphere perspective, In:Matthwes, J.A., Brunsden, D., Frenzel, B., Glaser, B. and Weib, M.M. (eds), Rapid Mass Movement as a Source of Climatic Evidence for the Holocene, Gustav Fischer Verlag, p. 333-353.

DeRose, R. C., Gomez, B., Marden, M. and Trustrum, N. A., 1998. Gully erosion in Mangatu Forest, New Zealand, estimated from Digital Elevation Models. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 23: p. 1045-1053.

Gomez, B., Eden, D. E., Peacock, D. H. and Pinkney, E. J., 1998. Floodplain construction by recent, rapid vertical accretion: Waipaoa River, New Zealand. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 23: p. 405-413.

Gomez, B., Eden, D. E., Hicks, D.M., Trustrum, N. A., Peacock, D. H. and Wilmshurst, J., 1999. Contribution of floodplain sequestration to the sediment budget of the Waipaoa River, New Zealand: In: Alexander, J. and Marriott, S. B. eds, Floodplains: Interdisciplinary Approaches, Geological Society of London Special Publication 163. p. 69-88.

Grant, P.J., 1981. Recently increased tropical cyclone activity and inferences concerning coastal erosion and inland hydrological regimes in New Zealand and eastern Australia, Climatic Change, v. 3: p. 317-332.

Griffiths, G.A. 1982.  Spatial and temporal variability in suspended sediment yields of North lsland basins, New Zealand. Water Resources Bulletin, v. 18: p. 575-583.

Hicks, D.L., 1991. Erosion under pasture, pine plantations, scrub and indigenous forest: a comparison from Cyclone Bola. New Zealand Forestry, v. 36: p. 21-22.

Jones, I.E. and Howie, W.R., 1970. The measurement and control of erosion and sedimentation. Proceedings of the New Zealand Water Conference, Part II: p. 46.1 - 46.25.

Marden, M. and Rowan, D., 1994. Protective value of vegetation on Tertiary terrain before and during Cyclone Bola, East Coast, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, v. 23: p. 255-263.

Marutani, T., Kasai, K., Reid, L. M. and Trustrum, N. A., 1999. Influence of storm-related sediment storage on the sediment delivery from tributary catchments in the upper Waipaoa River, New Zealand. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms,v. 24: p. 881-896.

O'Byrne, T. N., 1967. A correlation of rock types with soils, topography and erosion in the Gisborne-East Cape region. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 10: p. 217-231.

Page, M. J., Reid, L. M. and Lynn, I. H., 1999. Sediment production from Cyclone Bola landslides, Waipaoa catchment. Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand), v. 38: p. 289-308.

Pearce, A. J., Black, R. D. and Nelson, C. S., 1981, Lithological and weathering influences on slope form and processes, eastern Raukumara Range, New Zealand. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 132: p. 95-122.

Pearce, A. J., O'Loughlin, C. L., Jackson, R. J. and Zhang, X. B., 1987. On-site effects of reafforestation on hydrology and erosion, eastern Raukumara Range, New Zealand. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 167: p. 489-498.

Trustrum, N. A., Gomez, B., Page, M. J., Reid, L. M. and Hicks, D. M., 1999. Sediment production, storage and output: the relative role of large magnitude events in steepland catchments. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie Supplement Band, v. 115: p. 71-86.

Zhang, X., Phillips, C.J. and Marden, M., 1991a. Internal deformation of a fast-moving earthflow, Raukumara Peninsula, North Island New Zealand. Geomorphology, v. 4: p. 145-154.

Zhang, X., Phillips, C.J. and Pearce, A.J., 1991b. Surface movement of an earthflow complex, Raukumara Peninsula, North Island New Zealand. Geomorphology, v. 4: p. 261-272

Zhang, X. B., Phillips, C. and Marden, M., 1993. A comparison of earthflow movement mechanisms on forested and grassed slopes, Raukumara Peninsula, North Island, New Zealand. Geomorphology,v. 6: p. 175-187.
 

Climate and Vegetation History

Allsop, F., 1973. The Story of Mangatu The Forest Which Healed the Land. New Zealand Government Printer, Wellington, 100 p.

Berryman, K.R. 1992. A stratigraphic age of Rotoehu Ash and late Pleistocene climate interpretation based on marine terrace chronology, Mahia Peninsula, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 35: p. 1-7.

Eden, D.N. & Page, M. J., 1997, Palaeoclimatic implications of a storm erosion record from late Holocene lake sediments, North Island, New Zealand: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 139: p. 37-58.

Hessell, J. W. D., 1980, The Climate and Weather of the Gisborne Region. New Zealand Meteorological Service miscellaneous Publication, 115(8): 29 p.

Jones, K. L., 1988. Horticulture and settlement chronology of the Waipaoa River Catchment, East Coast, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Archaeology, v. 10: p. 19-51.

McGlone, M. S., Howorth, R. and Pullar, W. A., 1984. Late Pleistocene stratigraphy, vegetation and climate of the Bay of Plenty and Gisborne Regions, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 27: p. 317-350.

Mildenhall, D. C. and Brown, L. J., 1987. An early Holocene occurrence of mangrove Avicennia marina in Poverty Bay, North Island, New Zealand: its climatic and geological implications. New Zealand Journal of Botany, v. 25: p. 281-294.

Mildenhall, D.C., 1994, Early to mid-Holocene pollen samples containing Mangrove pollen from Sponge Bay, East Coast, North Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, v. 24: p. 219-230.

Page, M. J. and Trustrum, N. A., 1997, A late Holocene lake sediment record of the erosion response to land use change in a steepland catchment, New Zealand. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, v. 41: p. 369-392.

Page, M. J., Trustrum, N. A. and DeRose, R. C., 1994, A high resolution record of storm-induced erosion from lake sediments, New Zealand. Journal of Paleolimnology, v. 11: p. 333-348.

Pillans, B., McGlone, M., Palmer, A.  Mildenhall, D., Alloway. B. and Berger, G., 1993. The Last Glacial Maximum in central and southern North Island, New Zealand: a paleoenvironmental reconstruction using the Kawakawa Tephra Formation as a chronostratigraphic marker. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 101: 283-304.

Pullar, W. A., 1965. Soils and agriculture of Gisborne Plains. New Zealand Soil Bureau Bulletin20: 92 p.

Stewart, R.B. and Neall, V.E., 1984. Chronology of palaeoclimatic change at the end of the last glaciation. Nature, v. 311: 47-48.

Scott, N. A., Tate, K. R., Ford-Robertson, J., Giltrap, D. J. and Tattersall Smith, C., 1999, Soil carbon storage in plantation forests and pastures: land-use change implications. Tellus,v. 51B: p. 326-335.

Tate, K. R., Parshotam, A. and Ross, D. J., 1995, Soil carbon storage and turnover in temperate forests and grasslands - a New Zealand perspective. Journal of Biogeography,v. 22:  p. 695-700.

Wilmshurst, J. M., Eden, D. E. and Froggatt, P. C., 1999. Late Holocene forest disturbance in Gisborne, New Zealand: a comparison of terrestrial and marine pollen records. New Zealand Journal of Botany, v. 37: p. 523-540.
 
 

MARINE Sedimentation and Structure

Barnes, P.M. and Lewis, K.B., 1991. Sheet slides and rotational failures on a convergent margin: the Kidnappers Slide, New Zealand. Sedimentology, v. 38: 205-221.

Carter, L., 1975.  Sedimentation on the continental terrace around New Zealand: A review.  Marine Geology, v. 19: 209-237.

Carter, L., Nelson, C.S., Neil, H.L. and Froggatt, P.C., 1995. Correlation, dispersal, and preservation of the Kawakawa Tephra and other late Quaternary tephra layers in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 38: 29-46.

Carter, L. and Heath, R.A. 1975.  Role of mean circulation, tides, and waves in the transport of bottom sediment on the New Zealand continental shelf.  New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, v. 9: 423-448.

Collot, J.-Y., Delteil, J., Herzer, R.H., Wood, R. and Lewis K.B., 1995: Sonic imaging reveals new plate boundary structures off shore New Zealand. EOS, v. 76: p. 1, 4 & 5.

Fenner, J., Carter, L. and Stewart, R., 1992. Late Quaternary paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic change over northern Chatham Rise, New Zealand. Marine Geology, v. 109: 383-404.

Foster, G. and Carter, L., 1997. Mud sedimentation on the continental shelf at an accretionary margin - Poverty Bay, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 40: 157-173.

Gibb, J.G. 1978. Rates of coastal erosion and accretion in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, v. 12: p. 429-456.

Griffiths, G.A. and Glasby, G.P. 1985.  Input of river-derived sediment to the New Zealand continental shelf. I. Mass.  Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 21: 773-787.

Lewis, K.B., 1973. Erosion and deposition on a tilting continental shelf during Quaternary oscillations of sea level.  New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics,v. 16: 281-301.

Lewis, K.B., 1980.  Quaternary sedimentation on the Hikurangi oblique-subduction and transform margin, New Zealand.  International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication, v. 4: 171-189.

Lewis, K.B., 1994. The 1500-km-long Hikurangi Channel: trench-axis channel that escapes its trench, crosses a plateau, and feeds a fan drift. Geo-Marine Letters, v. 14: p. 19-28.

Lewis, K.B., Collot, J-Y. and Lallemand, S.E.,1998. The dammed Hikurangi Trough: a channel fed trench blocked by subducting seamounts and their wake avalanches (New Zealand-France GeodyNZ Project). Basin Research, v. 10: 441-468.

Lewis K. B. and Marshall B. A., 1996. Seep faunas and other indicators of methane-rich dewatering on New Zealand convergent margins. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 39: p. 181-200.

Lewis, K.B. and Pettinga, J.R., 1993.  The emerging, imbricate frontal wedge of the Hikurangi Margin. Pp 225-250 (Ch. 13) In: Ballance, P.F. (ed.) South Pacific Sedimentary Basins   Sedimentary Basins of the World.  Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam.

Nelson, C.S., and Healy, T.R., 1984. Pockmark-like structures on the Poverty Bay sea bed - possible evidence for submarine mud volcanism. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 27: p. 225-230.
 

Physical Oceanography

Brodie, J.W., 1960.  Coastal surface currents around New Zealand.  New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 3: 235-252.

Chiswell, S.M., 1994.  Variability in sea surface temperature around New Zealand from AVHRR images. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, v. 28: 179-192.

Denham, R.N., Bannister, R.W., Guthrie, K.M. and Crook, F.G., 1984.  Surveys of the East Auckland and East Cape Currents, New Zealand.  Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, v. 35: 491-504.

Heath, R.A., 1985.  A review of the physical oceanography of the seas around New Zealand - 1982.  New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, v.19: 79-124.

Pickrill, R.A. and Mitchell, J.S., 1979.  Ocean wave characteristics around New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, v. 13: 501-520.

Ridgway, N.M. and Stanton, B.R., 1969.  Some hydrological features of Hawke Bay and nearby shelf waters.  New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research,v. 3: 545-59.

Roemmich, D. and Sutton, P., 1998. The mean and variability of ocean circulation past northern New Zealand: Determining the representativeness of hydrographic climatologies. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 103: 13041-13054.

Stanton, B.R., Sutton, P.J.H. and Chiswell, S.M. 1997. The East Auckland Current, 1994-95. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, v. 31: 537-549.
 
 

GENERAL   Maps and Charts

Arron, E.S.; Lewis, K.B. 1992.  Mahia Bathymetry (2nd edition).  New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Chart, Coastal Series 1:200,000.

CANZ Group (Carter, L., Cook, J.D., Foster, G.A., Garlick, R.D., Lichfield, N.J., Mitchell, J.S., and Wright, I.C.), 1996. Undersea New Zealand: New Zealand Region Physiography, 1:4,000,000.  NIWA Chart, Miscellaneous Series 74.

CANZ Group (Carter, L., Cook, J.D., Foster, G.A., Garlick, R.D., Lichfield, N.J., Mitchell, J.S., Wright, I.C.), 1997.  New Zealand region bathymetry (3rd edition), 1:4,000,000. NIWA Chart, Miscellaneous Series 73.

Lewis, K.B., Collot, J-Y., Davy, B.W., Delteil, J., Lallemand, S.E.,Uruski, C. and Geodynz Team, 1997. North Hikurangi GEODYNZ Swath maps. NIWA Miscellaneous Chart Series 72.

Mitchell, J.S., Carter, L. and McDougall, J.C., 1989. New Zealand Region Sediments, 1:6,000,000.  New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Chart, Miscellaneous Series, 67.

Mazengarb, C., Francis, D. A. and  Moore, P. R., 1991. Geological map of New Zealand, 1:50,000. Sheet Y16 - Tauwhareparae. DSIR Wellington.

Pantin, H.M., and Gibb, J.G. 1968.  Mahia Sediments.  New Zealand Oceanographic Institute, Coastal Series 1:200,000.
 

Miscellaneous Reports and Documents

Banbury, K., 1996. Changes in Sediment Storage in Te Weraroa Stream, East Coast, New Zealand, 1948-1996. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Auckland, 195 p.

Black, K.P., Gorman, R.G., Stephens, S.A., Beamsley, B.J., Healy, T.R., Bell, R.G. and Oldman, J.W., 1997, Numerical Modelling for the Port of Gisborne Expansion. Coastal Marine Group, University of Waikato and the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, 303 p.

Eden, D.N. and Trustrum, N.A., 1994. Waipaoa Catchment Study: Literature Review. Landcare Research, Palmerston North, 122 p.

Forsyth, P.J., Hoolihan, K. and Lock, R. G., 1979. A Geological Bibliography of Raukumara Peninsula, Northern and Central Hawkes Bay. New Zealand Geological Survey Report 88, 47  p.

Hicks, D.M. and Fenwick, J.K., 1993.  Suspended sediment manual - field, laboratory and office procedures for collecting and processing suspended sediment data.  Freshwater Miscellaneous Report, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Christchurch, June 1993: No. 91, 84 p.

Hogan, A., 1997. Waipaoa Catchment study: Flood History and Hydrological Changes, and Mangatu and Upper Waipaoa Rivers: Historic Photographs. Report EWTR97/01 Gisborne District Council, 64 p.

Hosking, P. L., 1985. Sediment storage in the Waipaoa River 1947-1979. Report to East Cape Catchment Board, 51 p.

Rosser, B. J., 1997. Downstream fining in the Waipaoa River; an aggrading, gravel-bed river, East Coast, New Zealand. M.Sc. Thesis, Massey University, 160 p.

Rowe, L. K., 1995, Waipaoa Catchment Streamflow Analysis: Mangatu River, Upper Waipaoa River, Waingaromia River, Waipaoa River at Kanakanaia, Te Arai River. Landcare Research Contract Report LC 9596, 53 p. and Appendices.

Stephens, S.A., Healy, T.R., Black, K.P., Beamsley, B.J. and Gorman, R.G., 1997, Overview Summary for the Port of Gisborne Expansion.  Coastal Marine Group, University of Waikato and the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, 29 p.

Walpole, B. G., 1994. Historical - 1993. East Coast Water Resources Report, Gisborne District Council 99 p.