Tracking the Costs of Care for Indiana's Most Severely Disabled Students
by Russ Skiba, Nick Vesper, Barry Bull,
Indiana Education Policy Center
[Editor's Note: This article appeared in the Indiana Education Policy Center's newsletter and was posted on the Division News & Notes bulletin board of the Indiana SECN 6/4/97.]
Appropriate treatment for children with the most severe disabilities has long been both a priority and a problem for state educators. The problems of such children tend to be complex and multi-layered, while services may be unavailable or poorly coordinated (Knitzer & Yelton, 1990). In education, as in mental health, those children tend to be served in the most restrictive and costly settings (Kauffman & Lloyd, 1992).
In response to such problems, community and state agencies across the nation have begun to explore more effective services models, attempting to integrate social services into a "system of care" (Stroul & Friedman, 1986). This approach, stressing interagency collaboration and pooled resources, focuses on meeting the needs of children and families in their home communities. Strategies such as wraparound services, intensive family intervention, and day treatment are used to increase local resources, so as to better address the complex problems of multi-needs children (Burchard & Clarke, 1990).
Since 1970, Indiana's most severely disabled students have been served through the state's legislative mandate for services for special education students whose difficulties are such that they cannot be served through traditional services at the local level. Legislative amendment in 1991 created a new initiative, the Alternative Services Program. The Alternative Services Program is designed to increase Indiana's capacity for serving its most disabled children, by allowing funds that had hitherto been reserved for residential placement to be spent on developing systems of care to support these students in their local community.
In its first five years, the initiative has led to dramatic shift in placement for the state's most severely involved children in special education. In 1989, 72% of those students were served in out-of-state residential programs, now only 13% are served in those locations. Yet funding issues have remained troublesome, as costs for students served under Rule S-5 continue to rise at an alarming rate.
In 1995, the Indiana DOE Division of Special Education contracted with the Indiana Education Policy Center to perform a fiscal analysis of the Alternative/Residential Services Program that would focus on the types of children served, the services they receive, and the costs of those services. Four primary questions were addressed in the analysis:
1. Which children are most at risk for different placements or services?
2. How often are different placements used? What is the relative cost of those placements and the services associated with those placements?
3. How well are the costs for these services being shared among agencies?
4. What factors contribute to the overall cost of serving the children in this program?
Description of Procedures.
To facilitate evaluation of the program, the Indiana Education Policy Center and the Indiana Division of Special Education devised a standard coding procedure for all children and youth served by the program, providing organized information about demographics, risk factors, and types and costs of services provided. Local service providers were trained in the use of the coding procedure, and completed the coding as part of their application for state funds under the Alternative/Residential Services Program. In the first year of implementation of the coding procedure, data were collected on 299 applications for service in either residential treatment or local alternative services programs.
Child and Family Characteristics.
Of the students in the S-5 sample, the majority were served under the special education classification emotional handicap (64%), followed by autism (12.9%), severe mental handicap (4.7%), and hearing impairment (3.6%). The overwhelming majority of the sample (83%) was male. About 70% of the sample had at least one DSM diagnosis. The most common diagnosis was Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Disorder (19.9%).
Factor analysis was used to identify child and family risk factors among this population. Children with serious medical problems were significantly more likely to be served in local alternative service programs. Children with serious emotional problems such as depression tended to be served in in-state or out-of-state residential programs. Children with overt, acting-out conduct problems are served significantly more frequently in in-state residential programs; they are served least frequently in out-of-state residential programs.
Types and Costs of Placement/Service.
A majority of students in the program are currently being served by alternative service plans in their local community (54.7%), while 32.2% of the sample are served in in-state residential programs, and 13.0% are served in out-of state residential treatment. Local alternative service programs averaged slightly less than half the cost of residential placement. There was no significant difference in cost between in-state and out-of-state residential placement.
In terms of the types of services received, the most common services included individual, group, and family counseling, case management, and room and board. The most costly services were room and board, interpreting, and assisted supported living.
Cost Sharing Among Agencies.
When other agencies, such as Medicaid or the Division of Families and Children, do contribute to the program, their contribution can be substantial, up to one third of the total cost of a child's program. Yet that contribution tends to occur infrequently, in only about one quarter of all cases. Thus, contributions of the State DOE outrun other agencies by a factor of about 7:1.
Factors Contributing to Overall Cost.
Multi-variate analyses exploring the most important influences on overall cost of Alternative/Residential services indicated that neither child nor family factors appear to bear a substantial relationship to cost. Rather, the main influence on cost is placement in residential treatment. Whether in- or out-of-state, residential placement is, on average, over twice as expensive as alternative services in the local community.
The data suggest that Indiana's Alternative Services Program continues to have a significant impact on restructuring service to the most severely disabled students served by special education. Analysis of expenditures indicates that the cost of residential treatment continues to be about twice that of service in the community. As expected, the students served by the program are distinguished by a number of child and family risk factors that appear to have some influence on the type of placement the student receives.
What appears to be the strongest predictor of total cost is the decision about whether to serve a child in the local community or in a residential treatment facility. Thus, strengthening local capability could enable local communities to provide services that would allow them to avoid placements in more expensive residential placements. Further analyses this year will attempt to identify factors that drive up costs, as well as cost-effective alternatives.
The mechanism for making funds available for supporting programming in the local community is a clear strength of the program. In the first five years of the Alternative Services Program, the number of children served in local placements has grown from near zero to over 150, representing over 50% of the sample. Given that the system of care approach is relatively new, this shift in service must be regarded as a remarkable achievement.
In contrast, interagency collaboration, particularly collaboration in funding, continues to be problematic. With both an efficient funding mechanism and a mandate for service for education, combined with a lack of contribution from other agencies, it is not surprising that costs borne by the IDOE continue to grow. It is not unreasonable to ask, however, whether education should continue to bear the lion's share of costs for children whose primary difficulties-such as abuse, prior arrest, or placement outside of the home-are not educational in nature.
More and more Indiana communities are choosing to make the commitment necessary to support children with these complex and difficult problems locally. By continuing to build local resources, and beginning to build effective bridges with other agencies, those communities can be supported in an enterprise that may be, in the long-term, highly cost effective for the State of Indiana.
Burchard, J. D., Burchard, S. N., Sewell, R., & VanDenBerg, J. (1993). One kid at a time: Evaluative case studies and description of the Alaska youth initiative demonstration project. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Child Development Center, CASSP Technical Assistance Center.
Burchard, J. D., & Clarke, R. T. (1990). The role of individualized care in a service delivery system for children and adolescents with severely maladjusted behavior. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 17 (1), 87-99.
Dollard, N., Evans, M. E., Lubrecht, J., & Schaeffer, D. (1994). The use of flexible service dollars in rural community-based programs for children with serious emotional disturbance and their families. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2 (2), 117-125.
Kauffman, J. M., & Lloyd, J. W. (1992). Restrictive educational placement of students with emotional or behavioral disorders: What we know and what we need to know. Severe Behavior Disorders Monograph, 15, 35-43.
Knitzer, J. (1993). Childrens mental health policy: Challenging the future. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 1 (1), 8-16.
Stroul, B. A., & Friedman, R. M. (1986). A system of care for children and youth with severe emotional disturbances. (Rev. ed.). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Child Development Center, CASSP Technical Assistance Center.
Contact: Dr. Russ Skiba, Associate Professor, Counseling and Educational
Psychology at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana at 812/856-8343.
The IDEA Reauthorization is now available to Indiana users on the Internet accessible from the Indiana DOE Division of Special Education web site. You may go to the Division web site and click on IDEA Reauthorization at <http://www.indstate.edu/iseas/dsehtm.html> or directly to the IDEA reauthorization document at <http://www.indstate.edu/iseas/IDEA.html>
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Hank Binder notified directors by e-mail that the final budget bill passed by the General Assembly included the following foundation amounts for State special education (APC) funding:
Based upon the Division's child count projections, these foundation amounts should generate an overall funding increase of 4.5% in the first year and 5.0% in the second year. Also, OHI was moved to Group 2 for funding purposes effective July 1, 1977.
In addition, the Division plans to mail the fiscal year 1998 Federal
application/report packets on June 3, 1997. The Part B, IDEA and Preschool
grant awards will probably be based upon minimum per child estimates ($443
Part B, $610 Preschool). In the event that the final Federal allocations
result in more funds available per child, a one page amendment will be completed
by local districts to obligate the additional funds sometime in the fall
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Sharon Knoth, coordinator of communications at the Division of Special Education, has announced the mailing to Directors of a CD ROM sign language reference dictionary. The CD ROM is not intended to be used to teach sign language to a student who has a hearing impairment. The intent is to have it used with peers of a student who uses sign, whose peers would like to learn some signs in order to communicate with the student without necessarily needing an interpreter.
Each special education planning district, state-supported school, and institution of higher education will receive a CD ROM. There are a few extra CD ROMs available which will be distributed on a first asked - first given basis by contacting Sharon Knoth 317/232-0570.
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Vicki Hershman, state coordinator of the PATINS project, has announced
that their Recycled Computer Project has received a donation of software
from a New York Publisher (Ziff Davis Publishing). If you are interested
in receiving any of the software, please contact 317/243-1311 for a listing
of the software available.
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FYI: The commissioner of the Indiana Department of Health (IDH) has appointed a task force to consider options other than the Indiana Department of Health for governance of the State Schools. The task force is made up of parents, legislators, state school staff, students, alumni, labor union representatives, and others in state government agencies (e.g. DOE Division of Special Education).
For additional information contact the IDH office of the director of
special institutions (317/233-7806).
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Cris Fulford, project manager for ATTAIN (Accessing Technology Through Awareness in INdiana) has announced a new office location. ATTAIN has moved to 1815 North Meridian Street, Suite 200, Indianapolis, IN 46202. Telephone numbers are 800/528-8246 or 317/921-8766 or TDD 800/743-3333 and fax 317/921-8774.
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Division of Special Education
Division of Special Education
West Lake County Special Education
Jennings County School Corporation
Division of Special Education
May 14, 1997
[These minutes are considered unofficial until approval at the next meeting on June 11, 1997.]
Members Present: Brett Bollinger, Southeast Representative; Phyllis Craig, North Central Representative; Mary Jo Dare, Central Representative; Sheila Decaroli, East Representative; Muriel Downey, Northeast Representative; Bob Marra, Director, Division of Special Education; Joan Melsheimer, Southwest Alternate; and, Jeff Young, ICASE Representative
Members Absent: Joan Machuca, Northwest Representative
Others Present: Hank Binder, Federal Projects Coordinator, Division of Special Education
Staff Present: Gary Collings, ISEAS Executive Director and Susie Thacker, ISEAS Executive Assistant
The meeting was called to order at 8:30 AM by Gary Collings as ISEAS Executive Director.
Approvals: Minutes: Minutes from the April 16, 1997 meeting were presented. MOTION: With a motion by Bollinger/Marra the minutes were approved as written.
Salary Committee: Sheila Decaroli, chairperson of the ISEAS Staff Salary Committee, which included Bob Marra and Bill Littlejohn, presented the Committee's recommendations to the Steering Committee. MOTION: Decaroli/Bollinger moved that the Salary Committee accept the project director's recommendation to grant the project director an annual salary increase of 2%, grant the executive assistant an annual salary increase of 5%, and grant the program coordinator an annual salary increase of 5% plus a one-time salary base adjustment of $2,000 due to extended job responsibilities, all to be effective July 1, 1997, along with whatever benefits are accrued through the affiliation with Indiana State University. The motion was carried. The Steering Committee expressed their appreciation to the ISEAS staff for their continued support and encouragement.
Director's Position Evaluation: Collings has approved the ISU Annual Performance Review Reports of the executive assistant and program coordinator and presented his to the Steering Committee for discussion. MOTION: A motion by Decaroli/Craig to accept the Annual Performance Review Report of the Executive Director was unanimously approved. The report will be forwarded to Dr. William Littlejohn, director of the sponsoring department for the ISEAS Project, for his endorsement and processing to the Office of the Dean of the School of Education. The signature page was signed by all Steering Committee members present as a sign of support.
Mini-Grants: Expenditures to date of $500 mini-grants:
|Central Roundtable||$ 0.00|
|North Central Roundtable||361.82|
Mini-Grant Applications/Reports: Southeast: Southeast Roundtable will sponsor a one-day forum on issues in education from 9:00 AM - 2:00 PM on June 13, 1997 at the Seasons Lodge and Conference Center in Nashville, IN. The forum will be facilitated by Gary Collings and will provide an opportunity for general and special education administrators to identify and discuss issues of mutual interest. Dress is casual and lunch is provided. For more information, contact Dr. Brett E. Bollinger, New Albany-Floyd County Schools, 812/949-4250.
Northwest: Northwest Roundtable requested approval of their $500 mini-grant to help offset room charges for spring roundtable meetings. Mini-grant funds may also be used to help support the room and facilitator costs for their June 6, 1997 retreat to be held at the Inn at Aberdeen in Valparaiso. The purpose of the retreat is to involve the roundtable membership in relationship building and to do strategic planning for the 1997-98 school year. Facilitators trained in creative problem solving will assist in this process. MOTION: A motion by Bollinger/Decaroli to approve Northwest Roundtable's $500 mini-grant request was carried.
New Steering Committee Representatives: Vendetta Gutshall has been selected as representative of Northeast Roundtable, with an alternate yet to be named, for a three year appointment (July 1, 1997 - June 30, 2000). Susan Price will serve as representative of Southwest Roundtable with Marilyn Faris as alternate. The ICASE Executive Committee should select its representative (usually the past president) for a one-year term (July 1, 1997 - June 30, 1998). The state director of the DOE Division of Special Education is a standing member of the Steering Committee. New representatives will be invited to attend the June 11, 1997 Steering Committee meeting with the current representatives.
Lighthouse Applications: No new Lighthouse applications have been received to date.
Administrative Study Keyclub (ASK): No applications have been received.
Calendar of 1997-98 Meetings: Collings presented a final draft of the ISEAS/ICASE calendar of meetings for 1997-98. The only dates yet to be confirmed are those of Phase 2 and 3 of the ISEAS LEASE Academy. The calendar was approved by both the ISEAS Steering Committee and the ICASE Executive Committee at their April 16 meetings. Also presented was a 1997-98 ISEAS University Forum calendar of meetings which was approved at the May 2 meeting.
1997-98 Program Review On-Sites: Members received a list of those planning districts scheduled for Program Review On-Site visitations during the 1997-98 school year and the dates of these visitations.
Grant Application: The 1997-98 ISEAS Grant Narrative Budget was presented for review. The total dollar amount of the grant will be $380,000 as it was last year.
At the April meeting Marra asked for feedback from the roundtables regarding re-directing funds now designated for mini-grants, Lighthouse visitations, and Administrative Study Keyclub (ASK) as there seems to have been a decrease in requests for these funds. He stressed he was not suggesting the total ISEAS grant be reduced but rather, if there is no longer the need for these programs, the funds be redirected to other more pertinent initiatives.
There was further discussion at the May meeting. It was determined that the mini-grant, Lighthouse, and ASK programs will be combined under Local District Initiatives. Roundtable representatives will still make a written request to the Steering Committee for approval of funds for local initiatives.
Also discussed was the redirecting of funds currently designated for Child Service Coordinator meetings as the grant will no longer be funded by the DOE Division. Collings explained the purpose of the regional wraparound meetings for which he has budgeted in 1997-98 is to continue to support the child service network as it becomes less structured. These funds could be used for quarterly meetings, training, etc. There was discussion about directors being more involved and aware of child service activities. It was suggested an organizational meeting might be planned at the beginning of the school year for Child Service Coordinators and their sponsoring directors.
MOTION: by Marra/Dare to approve the 1997-98 ISEAS Grant Application in the amount of $380,000 was carried.
1996-97 Events/Reports: Trainers' Bureau: A draft of a Trainers' Bureau Directory listing trainers who might be available with their director's permission to conduct training sessions in another district was presented for approval. The directory is a result of a survey mailed to directors at the end of February asking them to list any members of their staff who they would nominate to conduct training sessions in another district. The final directory will be made available to directors across the state. CONSENSUS: It was the consensus of the Steering Committee that the draft of the Trainers' Bureau Directory be accepted and disseminated to directors throughout the state.
1997-98 Events/Reports: LEASE Academy III - Phase 1: On March 21 a memo and registration form were sent to all directors of special education regarding Phase 1 of the ISEAS 1997-98 Academy series. The two-day introductory session is scheduled for June 16-17, 1997 (8:00 AM - 4:00 PM) at the Embassy Suites North, Indianapolis. The deadline for registration was May 2, 1997. A list of registrants was available for consideration at the May meeting. CONSENSUS: There was consensus that the full list of registrants be accepted as participants for Phase 1 of the Academy. Confirmations will be mailed to participants immediately following the meeting.
The Academy application for five Continuing Renewal Units (CRU) is now being processed by the IPSB.
LEASE Academy III - Phase 2: A final date has yet to be set for the Strategic Alliances session, Phase 2 of the Academy.
LEASE Academy III - Phase 3: The third phase of the Academy will be a two-day introduction to the "tools" of Creative Problem Solving for case conference coordinators presented by the Blumberg Center, ISU, for approximately 24 persons. No date has been selected.
School-Based Therapies Training Session: Paul Ash, a member of the IFCEC Planning Committee, has introduced the idea of ISEAS sponsoring a School-Based Therapies Training Topical during the 1998 IFCEC Conference which will be held February 26-28, 1998 at the Radisson at Keystone Crossing. Confirmation of acceptance of the topical is awaited from IFCEC.
Secretaries/Support Staff Seminar: The annual Secretaries/Support Staff Seminar is scheduled for November 18, 1997 at the Holiday Inn North at the Pyramids. The seminar will be divided into two concurrent sessions in the morning, repeated again in the afternoon. Each session would be approximately two hours in length.
Sue Ann Specht, consultant in stress management, Health Promotion Services, St. Vincent Hospitals, will build on this year's theme of Wellness in the Workplace by bringing in dealing with difficult people and managing change. Randy Jones and Carrie Jackson Van Dyke, who presented a joint ISEAS/ICASE seminar in December 1995 on Dealing Proactively with the Media, will present on effective communication, dealing with angry patrons, volatile issues, and confidentiality.
Conference Sponsorships/Reports: Report - LRP: A letter of appreciation was distributed from Joan Machuca, North Central Roundtable, who represented ISEAS at the annual LRP Legal Conference held May 4-7, 1997 in San Diego. As Machuca was not able to attend this month's meeting, her report will be given at the June meeting.
Those attending the LRP Conference received a copy of the USDOE/OSEP proposal for the IDEA bill. Collings noted that every roundtable was represented at the LRP Conference. Next year's conference will be held in Nashville, Tennessee.
Midwest Special Education Leadership Conference: The theme for the 14th Annual Midwest Special Education Leadership Conference is Unified Leadership: Facing the Challenges of Tomorrow's Schools. The conference will be held in Breckenridge, Colorado on June 24-27, 1997. As in the past, ISEAS will sponsor the participation of the ICASE President-elect, Russ Dawson.
University Forum: May 2, 1997 Meeting: The University Forum met Friday, May 2 at the ISEAS office to discuss the following questions: (1) How can IHEs and LEAs work together to support first year, experienced, and limited license teachers? and (2) How can IHEs and LEAs work together to provide authentic and effective field experiences? Three special education directors joined in the discussion. After discussion it was suggested that the next steps would be: (1) Each Forum member would send a memo to his/her respective dean highlighting the issues discussed, (2) Each Forum member should communicate the issues with his/her respective ICASE roundtable directors in person if possible, and (3) The chairperson will write a summary of issues for absent Forum members and invite them to discuss the issues with their respective deans. Avenues to discuss these issues with the ICASE Executive Committee and representatives of the Commission on Higher Education are being considered. A Forum business meeting was held in the afternoon. Copies of the full notes from the May 2 meeting are available upon request from the ISEAS office.
Next Meeting: The next meeting of the Forum will be an organizational meeting on Friday afternoon, September 26, 1997 in conjunction with the Fall ICASE Conference in Terre Haute.
IPSB Draft Standards: A copy of the Indiana Professional Standards Board (IPSB) Draft Standards for Building Level Administrators was provided for each Committee member.
IPSB External Standing Committee: The IPSB has approved an External Standing Committee to address standards for District Level Administrators proposed by the Indiana Association of Public School Superintendents (IAPSS). The charge of this committee will be to make recommendations to the IPSB concerning standards for district level administrators including superintendents, special education directors, vocational directors, curriculum directors, human resource directors and business and finance directors. The committee will include ten members including one classroom teacher, one superintendent, three administrators with corporation level responsibilities, a representative from the IPSB, a representative from the DOE and an IPSB staff member. Approximately ten meetings are planned with the work projected to begin in September 1997. An application was provided for those interested. Collings noted he had applied and encouraged others to do so.
Other Business: Standing Committee: Marra proposed using the Steering Committee as a standing committee in the future direction for the CODA Project. Marra wanted to use an established committee rather than going through the process of assembling a new committee for this purpose. As an example of the need for new direction, Marra noted that IDEA revisions will undoubtedly bring many changes regarding data collection. There is also a need for assistance with electronic technology. Collings suggested members could submit items before the meeting which could be added to the agenda for discussion. Marra proposed the first item be reviewing the needs survey now being disseminated by CODA. CONSENSUS: There was consensus that CODA be added as a standing agenda item for each Steering Committee meeting to get feedback from local directors regarding the future direction of CODA. Mary Anna Weber, consultant, will conduct an external evaluation and strategic planning process.
IASP Conference: The Indiana Association of School Psychologists (IASP) will hold its eleventh annual Fall Conference at the Radisson Plaza Suite Hotel, Indianapolis, on October 5-7, 1997. School psychologists are encouraged to share their ideas and experiences in regards to best practice issues in enhancing children's futures using a multidisciplinary approach. The deadline for submission of proposed presentations is July 8, 1997.
Special Education Law and Practice: The LRP manual "Special Education Law and Practice" has been purchased by ISEAS and is available for rotation throughout the roundtables. Phyllis Craig, North Central Roundtable, now has the manual.
Videotapes: "Who are the Children Being Born Today" and "Look Who's Laughing" are currently in the ISEAS office and available for loan.
Next Meeting: The next meeting will be held on Wednesday, June 11, 1997 at the Westin Hotel (Downtown Indianapolis)
- 8:00 AM - Coffee and Rolls
- 8:30 AM - ISEAS Steering Committee Meeting
- 10:30 AM - Division Report and ICASE Executive Committee Meeting
- 12:00 PM - Joint ISEAS/ICASE Luncheon - Recognition
- 1:30 PM - ICASE Executive Committee Meeting
May 14, 1997
ISEAS Office - Indianapolis
[These minutes are considered a draft until approved at the next scheduled meeting.]
Members Present: Daena Richmond (President), Russ Dawson (President-Elect), Jan Rees (Treasurer), Gary Collings (Secretary), Jeff Young (Past-President), Muriel Downey (NE), Mary Jo Dare (C), Brett Bollinger (SE), Sheila Decaroli (E), Phyllis Craig (NC), Joan Melsheimer (SW)
Others Present: Bob Marra, Roger Williams, Lynn Thompson, Tom Doyle, Jim Sands, Mary Jo Sparrow, Sharon Henderson, Hank Binder
A. MOTION: After a motion by Decaroli/Rees, the April 16, 1997 Executive Committee minutes were approved as submitted.
B. Rees presented a comprehensive balance sheet and docket of outstanding bills. MOTION: After a motion by Dare/Bollinger, the April 30, 1997 Treasurer's Report showing a balance of $18,840.92 without roundtable funds and a docket of bills totaling $6,612.97 with one claim disallowed were approved as submitted.
MOTION: After a motion by Young/Decaroli, the Northwest Roundtable Professional Development docket of bills in the amount of $955.52 and the East Roundtable Professional Development docket of bills in the amount of $4,172.64 were approved for payment.
Rees reported that our not-for-profit status with the IRS has been resolved in favor of ICASE.
II. Strategic Plan: 1996-97
A. Goal I: Encourage communication, support, and promotion of administrators of special education.
1. Richmond reminded members that the June 11 meeting would be held at the downtown Westin Hotel. The agenda will include approval of the 1997-98 budget, review of 1997-98 roundtable professional development proposals, the state superintendent as guest luncheon speaker and committee reports in the afternoon. ACTION: Richmond will mail the professional development application form to roundtable representatives to be completed and returned to her by June 2 for compilation.
Melsheimer raised concern about the luncheon and related expense in light of the projected budget constraints. [NOTE: After the meeting the ISEAS director offered to cover the luncheon costs related to the meeting on June ll. ICASE will cover refreshments, meeting room, A/V, and award expenses.]
Richmond distributed a CEC and CASE paper on IDEA reauthorization and a CASE membership update memo. Indiana currently has 82 CASE members in comparison to 435 in Illinois, 265 in Michigan, 215 in Ohio, and 92 in Kentucky.
2. Rees presented the first draft of the ICASE 1997-98 budget for a projected total of $44,750. The total does not include the estimated $8,000 for conference sponsorships which were proposed to be paid from the Executive Committee's share of the roundtable professional development proceeds. The total only includes $4,000 for a legal liaison for the short session.
The current 1996-97 budget was approved at $47,000 and has currently been exceeded by $21,262. Rees cautioned members that the new budget proposal had been tightened and will be adhered to once approved. Rees anticipates having a cash carry-over of $10,000+ (in contrast to a $30,000+ carry-over last year).
B. Goal III: Support the acquisition of adequate funding at local, state, and federal levels to meet the needs of children and youth with disabilities.
Henderson presented a draft of a Position Statement on Student Assessment which will need to be presented to the general membership at the Fall Conference. During discussion the proposal was revised.
Henderson noted that during the summer the Legislative and Policy Committee will be conducting a major review of the ICASE Constitution. If available, the major revision will be presented as a first reading at the 1997 Fall Conference with anticipated approval at the 1998 Spring Conference.
Dawson reminded the group that proposed minor changes to the current Constitution were pending approval at the Fall Conference. Henderson suggested the addition of a few more minor changes with the 30 days notice to be published in the August issue of the ISEAS Cable newsletter.
Henderson noted that at last month's meeting the members of the Executive Committee asked that the Legislative Committee review the legislative liaison position in comparison to what are the organization's needs and make recommendations. From last month's discussion and the recent review there seems to be a majority opinion that the ICASE organization needs to maintain a legislative link. Members of the Executive Committee endorsed the Legislative Committee's expectations for the legislative liaison as presented:
Richmond invited Executive Committee members to stay after the meeting for a dialogue with a partner of a management group. [NOTE: Those attending this session were Daena Richmond, Tom Doyle, Sharon Henderson, Russ Dawson, and Gary Collings.]
C. Goal V: Promote collaboration with the Department of Education and the Division of Special Education.
Marra briefed the members on the May 5 Department of Education meeting to produce a state assessment policy statement and guidelines for accommodations across the areas of presentation, response, setting/environment, and timing/scheduling. He distributed copies of a working draft proposal titled ISTEP Criteria & Markers for Appropriate Written Guidelines. The State Board of Education (SBE) reviewed the draft proposal on May 7. Its members seem committed to proceed full ahead with ISTEP+ next year in contrast to it being permissive for 1997-98. The SBE may, however, only require three re-takes of the graduation exam before waiver requests can be made.
Executive Committee members discussed the desirability of having students with disabilities take the exam as early and often as available prior to the graduation exam at 10th grade. Since the ISTEP standards are focused in academics such as English, mathematics, etc., these will drive the curriculum which may require expanded training for special educators.
In response to a question Marra suggested that student scores in cooperative programs will at least be tracked back to the resident school corporation this first year. (Eventually the student scores may be tracked back to the building of their attendance zone not the building where they are served.)
The graduation exam is a three-day test with stringent security deadlines. If a student would miss the final day, the exam will be closed and returned as is for security purposes. This has implications for accommodations and what parts of an exam a student might take during each three-day administration period. Once a student passes English, for example, that is final and the student could focus on mathematics during the next administration period the following semester.
The Department of Education is developing two videotapes with one for public broadcast stations and the other for schools. There will also be an 800 telephone number. The Department of Education is planning training sessions on test accommodations in early fall for personnel in Title I, limited English proficiency (LEP), migrant, adult, and special education.
Marra reviewed the Department of Education budget appropriations being considered in the Special Session of the General Assembly. He distributed a handout with the preschool appropriations based on the $2,750 per pupil foundation. Any increase will be due to child count growth as the foundation remains the same. The increased funding for Alternative Residential Services is due, in part, to the local directors response to the January ICASE survey. The additional pupil count is expected at or near 5% reflecting the same level as general fund increases. Richmond requested that the minutes reflect the Executive Committee's commendation to both Bob Marra and Hank Binder for their efforts in behalf of education during this session of the General Assembly.
Marra next presented a DOE Divisions of Finance and Special Education report related to the OHI census. The average state percentage of OHI is 0.177. The percentage range across planning districts was from a high of 0.784 to 0.000. Twenty-one planning districts were above the 0.177 state average. Members concurred that the Division had forewarned school superintendents and directors a couple of years ago regarding a caution on overidentification in the OHI category. The correction in the distribution formula was considered necessary now and would likely have been more detrimental in coming years.
Marra raised the question of how the Division can increasingly work with directors to obtain data reflective of issues of a local impact e.g. group homes, new industry, etc. Directors input to local business managers for census projections will become increasingly critical. Members agreed that training in making projections and trend analysis would be helpful in the future.
Marra asked that directors step back and view the larger financial picture beyond the OHI issues. The bottom line is that we appear to have maintained an APC appropriations level of $278,700,000. He asked that directors look across preschool, ARS, and APC to better understand how well we have been supported.
There was a consensus of appreciation expressed by the members to Marra and Binder for both their intense level of work and their openness in providing the information to directors. Richmond reminded roundtable representatives to share this discussion with the directors in their respective regions.
Williams reported that SB 256 was in limbo during the Special Session. COVOH reportedly had requested that Senator Kovatch have SB 256 called down during the Special Session. Regardless of the legislative outcome, Marra noted that the Division is still committed to the need for this study.
In contrast, SB 400 was passed during the regular session and requires a fiscal analysis of the state schools. Its provisions also include a committee which will meet quarterly to discuss students denied services at state schools for whatever reasons. Marra has been appointed to this committee as the DOE representative. He asked that directors inform him of any student cases. After the committee's first meeting in June, Marra will bring back more information. Marra reported that the Indiana Soldiers' and Sailors' Home with the Morton School at Knightstown is moving ahead to establish its own special education programs separate from the New Castle Area Programs for Exceptional Children.
Binder next discussed IDEA reauthorization as it is unfolding. It was noted that ICASE had 1-4 representatives from each of its roundtables in attendance at the recent LRP Conference in San Diego. Binder referred to the David Hoppe memo/analysis grid distributed at the LRP Conference. He distributed the Article 7/IDEA analysis just completed by Karen Hendrix. It needs to be emphasized that Hendrix worked from a USDOE proposal which is not necessarily the text of language being considered in closed committee sessions by the U.S. Congress.
Binder presented IDEA reauthorization as it is unfolding. He referred to the David Hoppe memo/grid brought back from LRP which was in the ISEAS folder. He also disseminated an allocations sample of selected sites represented by members of the Executive Committee. However, the formula based on overall census and poverty will be the future pattern for distribution.
Binder noted that the proposed federal formula based, in part, on overall corporation census and poverty negates his handout on allocation options. It appears in FY '98 (7/1/97) states will receive a 30% increase projected in Indiana at $443 per child in Part B based on a $3.1 billion appropriation. Once the federal appropriation reaches a ceiling of $4.9 billion, the new formula stipulation will be applied on top of the per child allotments. At the current trend levels this ceiling level could be reached in 2 or 3 years and we may be at $700 per child. It appears districts will continue to receive the theoretical $700 per child but all future funds beyond the $4.9 billion ceiling will be based on general school population (85%) and poverty levels (15%) as set in the 1990 U.S. Census.
In contrast the census/poverty level is applied to all FY '99 (7/1/98) federal preschool funds with no child count basis. It is unclear at this point whether there are any hold harmless provisions. There apparently is a federal definition of poverty. The FY '98 preschool per child amount will likely go down to $610 due to child count increases. In the event that the final Federal allocations result in more available funds per child, a single page amendment would be completed for local districts in the fall of 1997 to obligate the additional funds.
In FY '99 (7/1/98) the 75% pass through caps at 20% for discretionary local systems improvement grants and 5% for state administrative costs at the FY '98 level plus an inflation factor.
Binder will have the application/reports packets in the mail on June 3, 1997. He suggested we coordinate our efforts to disseminate all future IDEA related information. Roundtable members were encouraged to circulate Hendrix's analysis which will be revised once the final IDEA reauthorization document is available.
D. Other Matters
Sands presented a legal issues theme for the 1998 Spring Conference. He suggested Lynn Beekman, Esq. from Michigan as a keynote presenter on topics to be determined. He also offered Dr. Humor (Stuart Robertshaw, Esq.) from Wisconsin as the after lunch speaker. Members encouraged Sands to proceed.
Richmond noted that Amy Cook Lurvey is recovering from surgery and that she would ask Patti Kem to send a get well acknowledgment from ICASE.
Next Meeting: The next meeting will be held on Wednesday, June 11, 1997 at the Westin Hotel (Downtown Indianapolis)
- 8:00 AM - Coffee and Rolls
- 8:30 AM - ISEAS Steering Committee Meeting
- 10:30 AM - Division Report and ICASE Executive Committee Meeting
- 12:00 PM - Joint ISEAS/ICASE Luncheon - Recognition
- 1:30 PM - ICASE Executive Committee Meeting
The IAPSS is preparing to make recommendations to the Indiana Professional Standards Board (IPSB) concerning standards that will ultimately serve as a basis for the preparation of licensure of district-level administrators.
In his presentation to the Professional Standards Board on February 20, 1997, Executive Director Tracy Dust recognized the efforts of the Professional Standards Board to "establish and maintain rigorous, achievable standards for educators beginning with pre-service preparation and continuing throughout their professional careers."
The process to be utilized by the IAPSS embraces IPSB policy pertaining to standing external committees. Functioning within these parameters, the IAPSS will make recommendations for district-level administrative positions which may include superintendents, assistant superintendents, directors, business managers, and others.
The initial IAPSS proposal also included the naming of Elkhart Superintendent Dr. Fred Bechtold as chairperson. The proposal was amended later to include Decatur Township Superintendent G. W. Montgomery as co-chairperson.
Co-chairs Bechtold and Montgomery are stressing the importance of this project as IAPSS begins to pursue applications for committee membership. The recommendations flowing from this endeavor will include defining the knowledge, dispositions, and performances that education professionals require if they are to function responsibly as district-level administrators.
Applications for committee membership are being distributed by the IAPSS through the current round of spring district meetings. The process also requires the mailing of applications to the IPSB Bulletin Board. Those who may be interested in additional information may contact the IAPSS at 317/639-0336.
Source: IAPSS Postscripts in May 1997.
The Governor's Planning Council for People with Disabilities is seeking input for Indiana's next three-year State Plan for Disabilities. We have just completed a series of four Town Meetings, and are gathering ideas from participants in our Disability Conference on June 28th -29th. In addition, we wish to provide an opportunity to all people across the State to give us ideas about issues they feel should be addressed in the Plan, unmet needs, and ideas for Council activities.
To assist us, we request that you disseminate this information to your constituents through your own publicity vehicles - mailings, bulletin boards, newsletters, and/or other interested community members know about this opportunity, and encourage them to participate!
We must receive all responses by Monday July 7th, so the responses can be included in the Plan before we begin Public Hearings, which will be held between July 23rd and July 30th. If you need further information, additional flyers, or have other suggestions as to who else we should contact, please give Vickie Pappas a call at 812/855-6508.
Submit your written input to: Governor's Planning Council for People with Disabilities, Harrison Building, Suite 404, Indianapolis, IN 46204 or fax to 317/233-3712. We especially need ideas about the following:
(1) What issues should the Council address over the next three years?
(2) What action steps should the Council undertake regarding: Employment? Education? Community Living? Health? Systems Coordination and Community Empowerment? Any Others?
All input must be received by Monday, July 7th in order to be considered in the plan development process.
Minutes of the Meeting of the State Advisory Council on the Education of Children and Youth with Disabilities - April 11, 1997; Embassy Suites, North; Indianapolis, Indiana
[These minutes are considered a draft until approved at the next scheduled meeting.]
Members Present: Michael Dalrymple, Becky Kirk, David Schmidt, Mary Jo Dare, Bill McKinney, Joan Melsheimer, James Phillips, Liam Grimley, Patricia Loge, Edward Kasamis, Kathy Wodicka, Nancy Cobb and Bob Marra. From the Division of Special Education: Sharon Knoth, Lynn Holdheide and Judy Gilbert. Gary Collings, Director of the ISEAS Project was present as a guest.
Members Absent: Richard Gousha, Bruce McKay and Mary Stewart.
Interpreters: Betty Criswell and Janet Lancaster.
The meeting was called to order at 8:48 A.M.
Mrs. Wodicka introduced Nancy Cobb with the State Department of Health, Special Institutions, and Gary Collings, Director of the ISEAS Project.
The minutes from the November and December meetings were distributed. Bill McKinney made a motion to approve the minutes as written. Seconded by David Schmidt. Carried.
Legislative Update (SB-256)
Mr. Marra gave an update on the current progress of Senate Bill 256 and distributed copies containing the current language to the Council for review. He specifically addressed the section of the proposed language which pertained to a study to be conducted by the Department of Education. Mrs. Dare asked that the Division look at IPS's desegregation order to determine its impact on IPS's administrative structure during our study. Mrs. Melsheimer asked that the Division also consider the CODA System and the current inflexibility to enter and print data in formats or reports that are usable to the district. It would help if the Division could think about the needed data ahead of time and give districts advance notice of the need for that data.
Mr. Marra brought the Council up-to-date on special education's place within ISTEP+ and the Indiana Graduation Examination. The Division has been working on the issues involved with all students - including Title I, 504, ESL/LEP, Migrant Education, etc.
The Council would like clarification on which teacher is eligible to "sign off" on the waiver for special education students as the "content area teacher."
The Department of Education will be developing written guidelines regarding the accommodations which may be made to the Indiana Graduation Examination. After State Board of Education approval they will be distributed as quickly as possible through e:Mail, the Division's web site in cooperation with the ISEAS Project <http://www.indstate.edu/iseas>, and Superintendent's mail.
At the May meeting we will have two issues: 1) The desire of Jay School Corporation to sever the ties to the Jay-Randolph Special Education Cooperative in order to form their own locally controlled entity to provide special education services in Jay County; and 2) Delaware County Special Education Cooperative and Blackford County Special Services would like to join in cooperative efforts to provide special education services. Mr. Marra distributed the information that each cooperative and/or each school corporation has provided to the Division. Mr. Marra would like the Council to review this information and let the Division know prior to May 1 of any additional information members feel they will need in order to vote on these proposals. Mrs. Dare asked why, since Delaware County and Blackford County are already operating cooperative programs, does this relationship need to be formalized? Mr. Marra stated he would relate this inquiry to Janet McShurley (Director of Special Education for Delaware County Cooperative) and ask that she respond at the May Council meeting. The Council indicated that they would like to review the information and discuss it at the May meeting, but have the option to either vote to approve or disapprove these requests at that time or to convene the Council for a June meeting to render decisions. Dr. Grimley indicated that the issues needing Council votes are: (a) approval or disapproval of a plan; and (b) an effective date for initiation of the new arrangement, if indeed either or both of the plans gains Council approval, keeping in mind that the new fiscal year will begin on July 1, 1997.
Delaware County Cooperative will present their proposal at 9:30 A.M. and the Jay-Randolph presentation will begin at 10:30 A.M. at the May, 1997 meeting. It was suggested that the June meeting be held at the Indiana Soldiers and Sailors Children's Home at Knightstown, Indiana. The Council was reminded that the New Castle Special Education Cooperative will be requesting changes in that service structure this next year. The Soldiers and Sailors Children's Home would like to develop their own service delivery model for students with disabilities. Another issue which will need to be addressed by the Council this coming school year is the Comprehensive Plan for the State Department of Health Schools. The Plan will need to be reviewed and approved by the Council. Transition needs should also be addressed in this Plan. Moving students back into the home school from the Department of Health schools must be well planned in advance. Dr. Kasamis would like to see Randolph County's Proposed Comprehensive Plan prior to the May meeting if possible.
A possible date for the June meeting would be June 6, 1997.
IDEA Reauthorization Update
Mr. Marra gave a brief overview of the current status of the IDEA Reauthorization.
Effective Discipline Workshops and Surveys
Five Thousand (5,000) Effective Discipline Surveys have been distributed and at present approximately two thousand (2,000) have been returned. Ms. Knoth gave an overview of the upcoming workshops and will make sure the Council receives a copy of those brochures.
Mrs. Kirk voiced some concerns regarding the Discipline Report discussed at the November Council meeting. She feels the document (on pages 16/17) leads the reader to believe the parents are the ones who cannot come to agreement and this is simply not the case. It is often a mutual disagreement.
Transition - Graduate Follow-Up Survey
Mrs. Holdheide gave an update to the Council regarding the Graduate Follow-Up Survey and distributed the Procedural Document for review. There are 21 sites throughout the state who will be participating in the survey this year. The sites are already working on the survey. The intent is to be able to generate a report - by exceptionality area - at both the state and local levels. The purpose of the Indiana Graduate Follow-Up Study has several important implications: 1) to obtain a broad measure of how former students who received special education services are doing; 2) to use this information to improve policies and practices; and 3) to document continuing needs for former students for use in making decisions about reforms in school curricula and practices. It is hoped that eventually, every district in this state will be a participant in the Graduate Follow-Up Survey to help us gather the needed statistical information. Last year's study results involving the participating nine sites were also distributed to Council members.
State Department of Health Strategic Plans
Mr. Marra distributed the requested State Department of Health Strategic Plans and asked the Council to contact him with any additional questions members might have in regard to these plans.
Mr. McKinney asked that the Council have an opportunity to re-visit the issue of due process. He would like to see us look at the 2-tier system and the possibility of adding the strike provision.
The next Council meeting will be May 9, 1997 at the Embassy Suites North at 8:30 A.M.
CSC Meeting - Minutes from April 14, 1997 - Those CSCs in attendance: Cindy Skoog, Forest Hills; Trace Benedict, Hamilton-Boone-Madison; Steve Scofield, Hancock County; Karen Hendrix, WCJS; Geneva Vinson, Elkhart Co.; Sandy Wooton, Johnson Co.; Edith Ervin, LaPorte Co. David Jann, Warren Township; Ola Smith, Shelby Co.; Pam Bruchette, ISD; Kathy McCormick, Floyd County; JoAnn Engquist, Porter Co.; Greg Hilligoss, Richmond State Hospital; Linda Grumley-DeFour, Clark Co.
IDOE: Carol Eby, Karyn Romer, Connie Rahe.
Guest Speaker: John Hill, Program Director, Medicaid Waivers; Cynthia Feaster, HDB, Inc., Michelle Tennell, Indiana Juvenile Justice Task Force.
Review of CSC Action Plan:
Trace shared that Boone County is starting a Community Team, complete with child/family teaming. Sandy shared that she is implementing school-based wraparound in Johnson Co. Steve shared that Ola is wraparound coordinator in Shelby Co. That county's team includes police, and hospital personnel. Planning occurs at that level. Then if additional planning is necessary, Ola does child/family teaming. She is employed by Gallahue who pays for the match for MRO. She is presently working with 8 families. Geneva shared that Elkhart is considering hiring a wraparound coordinator. Edith shared that community teams are used in a variety of ways. This depends on the Community Team.
John Hill from FSSA presented information regarding Medicaid Waivers. Waivers are not located in Medicaid Division. Waivers allow services above and beyond the Medicaid State Plan for individuals in their homes and communities. Indiana has 4 different waivers - Aged/Disabled; autism; ICF/MR waiver; medically fragile. Waivers are not entitlement programs.
Aged/Disabled - can serve 2,500/yr (birth to death);
Autism - 82 at any one time; max of 90 different people (birth to death);
ICF/MR - can serve 1,708 (500 is a recent amendment for deinstitutionalized folks) (birth to death);
Medically fragile - can serve 150/yr. 0-18 yrs. of age available.
Once slot is empty - no one can fill that spot until the following waiver year except for autism. There is a bill in General Assembly to increase the number to 200. Presently, there are 250 on a waiting list statewide. There are approximately 2,500 on the waiting list with an increase of approximately 225 being proposed in the General Assembly. First come, first served. ICFMR is a local waiting list. To get on a waiver list:
This process should only take 60 days. Eligibility Criteria:
Any child on an AFDC category must be on managed care plan, but individual may choose which plan they want. The exception is a Waiver - they cannot access the managed care plans.
Level of Care:
Cost Effectiveness: Services in community must be cheaper than rates assigned to respective levels of care in facilities. ICF/MR is most flexible - it is a programmatic cap - not an individual. The medically fragile waiver also has a programmatic cap.
Plan of Care Development - must be comprehensive and must indicate both formal and informal supports. The individual has the right to choose any certified waiver provider for waiver services. State Choice Dollars pay only after Medicaid - thus becoming payor of last resort.
Every plan of care must be signed off on the plan usually the Area Agency and sometimes also the Bureau of Developmental Disabilities. Federal government also looks at documentation. The Plan of Care is developed for the year which is annually assessed. There is an independent agency which reviews this information.
ICF/MR Services Available:
1. Personal assistance;
2. Case Management;
3. Adult Day Care;
5. Personal Emergency response;
6. Environmental modifications;
7. Assistive Technology;
B. Behavior Management;
C. Res.-Based Habilitation/ADL;
D. Supported Employment (those previously in Medicaid facilities - after OVR);
E. Pre-Vocational Training (those previously in Medicaid facilities - after OVR);
F. Physical Therapy;
G. Speech Therapy;
H. Occupational Therapy
Medicaid must be accessed first, prior approval is required. Waivers cannot be provided in school setting. Autism waiver services are slightly different - no personal assistance, no assistive technology, no adult day care, does provide auditory therapy and crisis intervention, transportation - to and from hab. services. Medically fragile - services: case management, respite, attendant and environmental modifications. Aged/Disabled - case management; home maker; attendant; respite; home modification; adaptive aids/devices; adult day care; home delivered meals.
1997 Wraparound Conference - Oct. 7, 1997:
Cynthia Feaster distributed information regarding sessions. An advance registration will be available for early birds. Regular registration is due Sept. 15th. The Cable will run information about the conference. Michelle presented the budget for the conference. The Division of Special Education is supporting some of the conference costs through a grant to the Juvenile Justice Task Force. Sponsorships for costs such as audio-visual equipment, etc. Sandy suggested exploring local Step Aheads for discretionary funds. Cynthia requested suggestions for sessions. The sessions will include collaboration from a state perspective. It will also include a panel of juvenile judges and school personnel, "The Dawn Project"; collaboration as it relates to transition; various community teams around the State.
Indiana Department of Education Updates:
Carol shared that IDOE is gathering information about those students who have attended Silvercrest in the past 2 years and who now have alternative or residential services plan. Arbor Hospital in Carmel has been purchased by Ocnomowoc and may potentially be open in the next 8-9 months. Carol is advocating for full days of school and working with local school districts in putting school programs together.
Due to the number of renewal applications, the Program Review Team will be reviewing for compliance information on the applications. There are 2 checklists being used - required components and the other will focus on content. She distributed per diem information from some of the providers. Average increase is about 3% - most take effect January 1. Do not hold up the application due to not knowing provider rates.
Hope House, group home for adolescent hearing impaired males - there will be a 40% increase in their rates. Carol also distributed updated statistics regarding numbers of ARS students. 541 contracts have been processed this school year thus far. Almost _ of the students are 11 to 14 years of age.
The Dawn Project is holding a training session on May 20th for CSCs, directors of special education - IDOE's contribution will be approximately $600,000. IDOE is very concerned with the daily costs of alternative families and cautioned CSCs as to services recommended.
Agenda for June 2, 1997 Meeting:
Marsha Mulrooney is agenda planner in collaboration with Kathy McCormick. Marsha will get lunch count for that meeting. Please let her know by May 29th.
For the Good of the Cause:
No new business. The meeting adjourned at 2:45 pm.
Lunch Period - [The following is the text of a letter from Robert Marra, director of the Indiana DOE Division of Special Education to a local director and principal as posted on the Division News & Notes bulletin board of the Indiana SECN 3/31/97.]
I am writing in response to your March 11, 1997 FAX inquiry of, "Can a thirty-minute lunch period be counted as part of a student's instructional day if goals and objectives are written into the student's Individualized Eduction Program."
The length of instructional day is addressed in Article 7 at 7-13-2 (b) and 7-13-3 (b) with related information to be found at 7-12-1 (k) (4). Essentially, the IEP for an individual student may address the need for scheduling, shortened school day, medical needs, endurance needs and related factors. Thus, there are situations where a shortened school day is needed.
The counting of a thirty-minute lunch period as instructional time is, again, an individual student issue. If the counting of the lunch period is somehow related to a shortened school day or reduced instructional time, a justification and case conference decision would be necessary. If there is no effect on the length of school day or instructional time issues, then, again, case conference agreement would be needed, but there would not be the need to justify a shortened school day or reduced instructional time.
A major concern would be situations where an entire class, group or building of students would be affected and a shortened school day or reduced instructional time would result for all of the students. In such cases, the decisions would not be "individual" but rather group scheduling decisions and issues of administrative convenience or transportation scheduling would arise.
In summary, individual decisions concerning IEPs, scheduling, goals and
objectives to be met during the lunch period and related issues can be made
on an individual basis if agreed to by the case conference committee. Such
decisions affecting entire groups or categories of students would generally
not be allowed if a shortened school day resulted.
OSERS/OSEP . . .
Overview: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) - This paper has been distributed by the federal Office of Special Education Programs as part of the effort to disseminate information about Public Law 105-17, the 1977 reauthorization of IDEA. It is designed for wide distribution concerning the rationale for new provisions in IDEA, and the good news about the accomplishments of special education under federal law since 1975.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) has a long history. Prior to its implementation in 1975, approximately 1 million children with disabilities were shut out of schools and hundreds of thousands more were denied appropriate services. Since then, the legislation changed the lives of these children. Many are learning and achieving at levels previously thought impossible. As a result, they are graduating from high school, going to college, and entering the workforce as productive citizens in unprecedented numbers.
Ninety percent of children with developmental disabilities were previously housed in state institutions. Today, they are no longer in those settings. As compared to their predecessors, three times the number of young people with disabilities are enrolled in colleges or universities, and twice as many of today's 20-year-olds with disabilities are working.
While this is significant progress, we can and must do better. The status of children with disabilities still falls short of our expectations for them.
Strategies for Success
The new IDEA legislation is an attempt to remedy these and other problems that contribute to the barriers children with disabilities face. IDEA will make these changes by:
SOURCE: GTE INS Federal Newsgroup posting on Indiana SECN 6/9/97.
The Principal's Role in Inclusion by Candy Lindsey - This article is shared by the Center for Innovation in Special Education (CISE), Parkade Center, 601 Business Loop 70 W, Columbia, Missouri..
The principal's leadership role in supporting inclusive educational practices is essential in today's schools. Principals influence inclusive practices in the following ways:
As schools endeavor to blend previously separate special and general education instructional systems, principals must develop a vision that includes the education of all students. Principals need not only to verbalize this vision but display the strength of their beliefs, values, and commitment with their actions.
In sharing a vision, principals begin to develop a climate communicating that every child is valued and an important part of the school community.
"I want every teacher to share in the responsibility for educating every child at Shepard Elementary," says Teresa Vandover, principal at the Columbia school. "It is the climate that we create together that allows students to know that they belong here, that every problem can be solved, and that we believe that each of them can be successful."
In an inclusive atmosphere, teachers are asked to learn and fulfill new roles in their instructional environments. As change challenges the traditional methods employed by teachers, the principal's role is to build trust. Teachers must trust the principal to support the risk-taking involved in change as they move from providing students with information to developing activities that give students the processes, tools, and experiences to find or create information themselves.
"Teachers, too, must have a 'climate of acceptance' in which they can problem solve," Vandover says. "A successful model for inclusion must include structures to support teachers and a culture which does not permit identification of a problem to be viewed as a failure."
As the instructional leader, the principal needs to provide ample planning time, support, and resources while the delivery of instruction under-goes transformation. Teachers find themselves implementing collaborative models, using block scheduling, and teaming up as co-teachers as schools restructure for more creative uses of their time and resources.
Curriculum modifications also develop as new instructional delivery systems are implemented. The modifications are not only to accommodate the diversity of students in general education classrooms, but also to correspond to Missouri's new goals and standards.
Inclusive practices fail if sufficient support services and resources are not available. The principal, with all faculty and staff, must brainstorm, research, and observe inclusive programs to develop methods for delivering instruction in their building and community.
Principals of secondary schools, with their traditional 50- minute classes, are especially challenged as they make changes to facilitate the transition of their diverse student populations into adult life. Principals and their staff will need to examine new initiatives, including Tech Prep, School-to-Work, and Career Paths as they design programs to meet the needs of all students.
Realignment of staff and resources are required at all building levels to provide the necessary supports for inclusion to work. Principals using special educators teamed with general educators reduce teacher-student ratios as well as provide services for students with special needs in general education environments. Block scheduling and team teaching provide flexibility and give teachers common planning time to implement effectively the curriculum initiatives and modifications.
Another component for principals to coordinate in the implementation of inclusive practices is the continuing professional development of their staff. A professional development agenda that addresses whole school and individual staff needs in effective practices must be designed with input and collaboration by principals, teachers, support staff, students, and parents. Opportunities for growth require creative use of time, funding, supports, and release time.
Effective principals create and manage the school culture and act as the catalysts in the change process. They enhance development of inclusive practices and effective school structures for all students as we design schools for the next century.
Burello, L. C., Schrup, M. G., & Barnett, B. G. (1992, March). The principal as the special education instructional leader. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED358641)
Burello, L. C. & Wright, P. T. (Eds.). (1992, Fall). Principal leadership (THE PRINCIPAL LETTERS, Vol. 9). Indiana: Indiana University, School of Education.
The international standards for the preparation of principals regarding the education of students with disabilities. (1996, May/June). LEADERSHIP TIMES, p. 6.
Paris, K. A. (1994). LEADERSHIP MODEL FOR PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING CHANGE FOR SCHOOL-TO-WORK TRANSITION. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin System Board of Regents.
CITATION: Lindsey, C. (1997, April). The principal's role in inclusion. MISSOURI INNOVATIONS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION, 24(4), 12-1
SOURCE: GTE INS Inclusive.Ed newsgroup posting on Indiana SECN 6/12/97.
National Council on Disability Takes Position on Physician-assisted Suicide - During its quarterly meeting in Albuquerque, the National Council on Disability voted to oppose the legalization of physician-assisted suicide. After reviewing U.S. Supreme Court briefs and current research, and consulting with organizations with various views, NCD found that the interests of people who would benefit from legalizing physician-assisted suicide are heavily outweighed by the probability that any law, procedures, and standards imposed to regulate physician assisted suicide will be misapplied to unnecessarily end the lives of people with disabilities, and that such decisions would also entail an intolerable degree of intervention by legal and medical officials. On balance, NCD found that the status quo regarding physician-assisted suicide is preferable to the limited benefits to be gained by its legalization.
The report called "Assisted Suicide: A Disability Perspective," was distributed to the House Commerce Committee, and several other organizations that also oppose physician-assisted suicide. The report will soon be available on the NCD home page: http://www.ncd.gov (The report may also be requested by contacting Stacy Brown at: 202-272-2004.
The U.S. House of Representatives voted 398 to 16 to pass legislation (H.R. 1003) banning federal funding of physician assisted suicides. Although no federal funds are currently being spent on physician-assisted suicides, proponents said it was necessary to pre-empt such action in the future. H.R. 1003 is now before the U.S. Senate for consideration.
The U.S. Supreme Court is currently reviewing two cases involving physician-assisted suicide.
CONTACT: National Council on Disability, 1331 F Street NW, Suite 1050, Washington, DC 20004-1107; 202-272-2004; TT 202-272-2074; fax 202-272-2022.
SOURCE: GTE INS Federal newsgroup posting on Indiana SECN 5/20/97.
Rick Peters, Director of the DOE Division of School Assessment (317/232-9050), issued an April 18 memo to Superintendents about the ISTEP+ testing dates for 1997-98. At its November 7 meeting the Indiana State Board of Education designated September 22 through October 1997 as the testing window for the administration of the ISTEP+ next fall. In developing testing schedules school corporations were reminded to be sensitive to the fact that the Jewish holiday Rosh Hashanah begins at sundown on October 1 and continues through October 2.
CPS Training Offered - Through a grant from the Bureau of Child Development, the Blumberg Center through the Unified Training System will be offering a two day Foundations in Creative Problem Solving to First Steps Coordinators and other First Steps council members. We have sent invitations to representatives of each First Steps Council in the state, but were not able to send to each individual council member. We would greatly appreciate your help in getting the word out to coordinators and council members you might know to ensure that we reach as many people as possible.
The training will take place at McCormick's Creek State park on July
31 and August 1. The cost for the training and materials is $140 for the
two days. Interested persons can contact Teresa Reynolds at 812/237-2830
for registration information.
School Counseling Grant - In 1995, the Indiana General Assembly created the School Intervention and Career Counseling development Program and Fund to help kindergarten and/or elementary schools develop or expand their school counseling programs.
In order to fund this initiative, the state legislature in 1996 approved a new Indiana education license plate and an accompanying funding formula that channels a portion of the sales of the education license plate to the School Intervention and Career Counseling Development Fund.
Now that monies are beginning to flow into the fund from sales of the education license place, an advisory committee has been created to distribute these funds to qualifying kindergarten and/or elementary schools. As directed by Indiana law, the advisory committee has created a grant application and information packet.
Please contact Matt Fleck at 317/232-9134 or e-mail <firstname.lastname@example.org>
|September 17-19, 1997||LaRue Carter Hospital||Dr. John Somers|
|October 8-10||East Central||Pam Musick|
|October 15-17||Elkhart County||Dr. Mary Beth Hulecki|
|October 22-24||Gary Community||Dr. Judith Green|
|November 12-14||Elkhart Community||Carson Lantis|
|November 19-21||Wabash-Miami||Bob McCaslin|
|January 14-16, 1998||Covered Bridge||Dr. Marilyn Faris|
|January 28-30||MSD of Warren Township||Niles Daggy|
|February 11-13||South Central||Charlie Edwards|
|February 25-27||Monroe County||Mike Horvath|
|March 4-6||South LaPorte County||Dr. Linda Duncan|
|March 25-27||RISE||Chuck Ellis|
|April 7-9||Anderson||Sheila Decaroli|
|April 22-24||MSD of Martinsville||Alan Kosinski|
|April 29 - May 1||Gibson-Pike-Warrick||Dr. John Helfen|
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