Functional Literacy Assessment Guidelines for Students who are Blind or Visually Impaired
Indiana Department of Education
Division of Special Education

Functional Literacy Assessment Guidelines
for Students who are Blind
or Visually Impaired




Field Test Edition

1996/97 School Year


Evaluation of Functional Literacy Assessment Guidelines
for Students who are Blind or Visually Impaired

This evaluation is being provided to collect input concerning the content and usefulness of this Field Test Edition of the Functional Literacy Assessment Guidelines. Your response will help us to complete the final edition of these Guidelines. Please complete and mail this form by June 1, 1997. Thank you.




Date Guidelines were received: ______________

My role or position is: My work setting is:My primary area of interest is:
_Family Member
_Counselor or Social Worker
_Administrator
_Related Service/Therapist
_Teacher
_Paraprofessional
_Other:
_Home
_Early Intervention
_Private School
_Public School
_State Operated Program
_Agency
_University/College
_Other:
_Early Intervention
_Preschool
_Elementary Ed.
_Middle School
_High School
_Post Secondary
_Other:




How useful were the following components within the guidelines?
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Not Useful
But Leave In
Partially
Useful
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Useful
Clinical Assessment____
Functional Vision Assessment____
Sensory Channel Assessment____
Medium Selection__ __
On-Going Assessment of Selected Literary Medium____
Additional Factors Which May Impact Literacy____
Summation of Functional Literacy Assessment____
Appendices____




Overall, did you find the Guidelines:
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User Friendly?____

General comments you would like to share: ______________________________

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Suggestions for improving the Guidelines:_______________________________

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Please use this section to record any corrections or errors noted in the Guidelines:
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Thank you for completing this evaluation. Please remove it from the Guidelines booklet, fold, fasten, affix postage, and mail to the address listed.

Indiana Department of Education
Division of Special Education
Room 229, State House
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204-2798

In 1993, Indiana Public Law 188-1993 was passed which amended Indiana Code 20-1-6.3 regarding the literacy of students who are blind or visually impaired. This amendment insured the right of students to be taught braille based on the recommendation of the case conference committee. In cooperation with this law, these Functional Literacy Assessment Guidelines (the "Guidelines") attempt to assist all involved parties to successfully achieve the goal of literacy for all students who are visually impaired. State agencies, independent organizations, school corporations, and concerned individuals have collaborated to make this document possible.

The Indiana Department of Education, Division of Special Education would like to thank the following participants for their involvement in the development of these Guidelines:

Michael BinaSuperintendent of the Indiana School for the Blind
Michael DalrympleIndiana Department of Education, Division of Special Education
Leslie DurstOutreach Resource Coordinator Indiana Educational Resource Center
Patti ElspermanPreschool Consultant, Evansville Association for the Blind
Marilyn FarisDirector of Special Education, Covered Bridge Special Education District
Karen GoehlProject Director, Indiana Deaf/Blind Services Project
Beth KwiatkowskiTeacher of the Visually Impaired, West Central Joint Services
Sharon KnothIndiana Department of Education, Division of Special Education
Bashir MasoodiTeacher of the Visually Impaired, Gary Community School Corporation
Joseph MoneyIndiana Chapter of the National Federation of the Blind
Jim PowellTeacher of the Visually Impaired, Ripley-Ohio-Dearborn Special Education Cooperative
Ann SchnepfDirector of Special Education, Clark County Special Education Cooperative
Margo StrodtmanTeacher of the Visually Impaired, Hancock-South Madison Joint Services
Gerald WagnerAssistant Superintendent, MSD of Washington Township

Any questions or comments regarding these Guidelines should be made to the attention of:

Indiana Department of Education, Division of Special Education, Room 229, State House, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204-2798; 317/232-0570; FAX: 317/232-0589; INTERNET:sknoth@inspeced.mhs.compuserve.com


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Clinical Assessment

Functional Vision Assessment

Sensory Channel Assessment

Medium Selection

On-Going Assessment of Selected Medium

Additional Factors Which May Impact Literacy

Summation of Functional Literacy Assessment

Appendices

The challenges presented to all students during their primary and secondary years of education are designed to enable these students to become productive adults. Basic skills taught during the first several years of their education provide a means by which students learn to meet the more difficult challenges during the later years of education and life. These skills and abilities include reading and writing, also known as literacy. It is through these skills that students learn to communicate, process information, and present and respond to ideas.

These Guidelines attempt to provide a method by which all students are insured to achieve levels of literacy commensurate with their abilities. If a student is visually impaired, everyday tasks, such as homework can become even more challenging. In order to provide a visually impaired student with the necessary skills to work and achieve to his/her full potential, a different method of obtaining the same information and level of literacy should be incorporated into the student's educational program. Alternative methods might include: large print, braille, and auditory means. In most cases, a combination of these with regard to individual needs and preferences will provide the student with the ability to learn on his/her own.

It should be stated that no technology or alternative method will now or ever take the place of one's ability to read and write independently. Large print, braille, or a combination of the two are all successful methods by which a student with a visual impairment may read and write.

These Guidelines assume that all professionals involved are qualified and competent. It is not assumed that an individual student's reading medium can be successfully decided purely by following these or any other Guidelines. Instead, a fully-informed case conference committee should make this decision. Provided herein are the minimum components which should be considered in order to properly decide which medium should be used in order to best serve a student's needs. When this decision is made without concern to financial restraints, present convenience, or preconceived ideas, the student will be more successful in his/her educational and even more distant pursuits.


Clinical Assessment

When a student is referred for possible special education services, a multi-disciplinary team is assigned. The membership of this team is determined by the individual district's written procedures as stated in 511 IAC 7-10-3(2). If the student is suspected of having a visual impairment, 511 IAC 7-11-13(e) requires a written report by a licensed ophthalmologist or optometrist. This is considered the clinical component of the prognosis for a visual impairment.

511 IAC 7-11-13(e) is very specific in what is required for this component. The requirements are:

(1) Etiology and prognosis of the visual dysfunction.
(2) Secondary or accompanying visual conditions such as nystagmus or photophobia.
(3) Diagnosis and proposed treatment regimen.
(4) Near/distance and corrected/uncorrected acuity measures for left, right, and both eyes.
(5) Measures of visual fields for both eyes, if appropriate.
(6) Recommendations for use of aids, glasses, or special lighting requirements.

The district is responsible for ensuring that all of these components are on file for the student and that the optometric or ophthalmological report is no more than 36 months old.

Should the optometric or ophthalmological report return to the school without the required components, every effort to obtain the missing requirements must be made. If there are still requirements of 511 IAC 7-11-13(e) which are not present, the multi-disciplinary team's functional vision assessment should address those components.



Education must aim at giving the blind child a
knowledge of the realities around him, the confidence
to cope with these realities, and the feeling that he is
recognized and accepted as an individual in his own right.

Berthold Lowenfeld


Functional Vision Assessment

Functional vision assessment is just one of the initial steps the multidisciplinary team must take in determining a student's literacy potential. Functional vision assessments may be completed in a variety of ways. Ideally, the components listed here (and throughout this booklet) should be divided among the various members of the multidisciplinary team and conducted in a variety of environments under variable lighting conditions. The parent or primary caregiver should be involved in the functional vision assessment. A thorough knowledge of a student's visual efficiency and potential for efficiency is vital when preparing his or her educational program. Through the use of a true multidisciplinary team (the viewpoint from several individuals working with the student) a more holistic picture of the student's abilities will emerge.

A student who is of pre-reading age or level will have different needs for a visual efficiency assessment than one who is currently reading but perhaps experiencing difficulties with the medium in use. The visual efficiency and potential assessment should be viewed as an on-going assessment which will be reviewed and reassessed by the multidisciplinary team at least triennially.

The following are components which should be addressed in a functional visual assessment.

_ Visual Efficiency and Potential
_ Recognition of Objects
_ Distance Requirements
_ Size Requirements
_ Lighting Requirements
_ Color Perception
_ Visual Discrimination
_ Subtle
_ Obvious
_ Contrast Sensitivity
_ Exploration of Objects
_ Visual
_ Tactual
_ Mouthing
_ Auditory
_ Any components which were contradictory or omitted from the optometric or ophthalmological report which may be assessed functionally

Appendix A provides sources for additional guidance with regard to the issue of visual efficiency and potential.


Sensory Channel Assessment

An evaluation of the student's use and preference for various sensory channels should be conducted in preparation for selecting a student's literacy medium. There are independent sources that produce and/or publish assessments for this area. Whichever assessment selected should look at the student while participating in a variety of activities and be conducted by the parent or primary care giver in cooperation with one of the student's teachers. Caution should be used to ensure that determination of a literacy medium is not made based on a student's sensory channel preference alone as the student may be unaware of the possible benefit of using another sensory mode. The sensory channel preference is one of several factors the case conference committee should take into consideration when determining literacy medium for a student.

The teacher of the visually impaired should use the information gathered from a sensory channel assessment to augment his or her lesson plans in all areas of the student's educational program. Mobility in the classroom as well as throughout the building, independent play and playing with others, learning of new activities, reinforcement of skills already learned, etc. are some of the important environments and activities used in a sensory channel assessment. It is most likely that the student will have a preference for different sensory channels depending on the task, expectations of the student, the student's “comfortability” with the task, etc.

At a minimum, a sensory channel assessment should determine the modality of preference when:

_ learning a new task;
_ involved in an independent/or pleasurable activity;
_ reinforcing a skill which has already been learned;
_ engaged in high-interest tasks; and
_ engaged in tasks the student is not fond of conducting.

The teacher of the visually impaired should also note which modality seems to be the most efficient for a particular task. The modality of preference and the most efficient modality may not always coincide.

Appendix B provides additional information on sensory channel assessments.


Medium Selection

The importance of determining the most productive literary medium for reading, writing , and computing cannot be overstated. It will greatly assist the student to master a literary medium (or mediums) early in the educational process. After a student learns to read and write independently s/he will be more likely to continue through out his or her educational career with less assistance and greater success. When deciding which literary medium is most suited for a student, parents, teacher(s), the case conference committee, and the student should not sacrifice future potential, learning ability, or quality of education. No bias should be placed on a literary medium because of anyone's personal beliefs, stereotypes, or pride.

Experimentation with Various Mediums

When considering the various types of literary mediums available, the teacher of the visually impaired will need to take into account the information gathered thus far in the assessment process. It is at this stage that different sized fonts may be shown to the student for reading/viewing preference and braille symbols may be introduced for his/her exploration. Just as any youngster would doodle and casually explore the literary medium they use, the student with a visual impairment should be given opportunities to play with and manipulate whichever literary medium for which they show preference.

The student's ability to write and take notes independently should not be overlooked either. Writing is accomplished in a variety of ways including, but not limited to slate and stylus, pen and paper, word processor, laptop computer, electronic note takers, etc. The student should be given ample opportunity to explore various means of writing and select whichever combination best suits his or her needs.

It is erroneous to assume that just because a student has a visual impairment large print books will be helpful and should be provided. The student's reading efficiency and comfortability with regular print, regular print with a magnifier, large print, and braille should be evaluated. Large print inherently presents several disadvantages: bulkiness, less clarity in the printed letters, blurred pictures and diagrams, awkward to lay on a regular desk top, difficulty to obtain, etc. To merely select large print, without consideration of the effect it does or does not have on the student would be unconscionable.

When experimenting with various literary mediums, it should be noted that the literary medium may be subject to change and should be reconsidered at least triennially to see whether it is still meeting the student's needs. If there is any question that a student may lose additional vision in the future, this should be discussed at the case conference committee meeting, as well.

Although a student with a visual impairment should have an emphasis placed on auditory learning this will, in most if not all cases, augment the student's primary literary medium. It should be noted that listening skills must be taught, practiced, and refined. It is a fallacy to state that an individual's hearing is superior because s/he has a visual impairment. Their hearing is better because s/he has been taught and have practiced and improved upon their listening skills. As students move on to secondary educational programs, access to braille and large print will be reduced considerably. Post-secondary education students rely heavily on auditory processing skills. Therefore, the case conference committee should look at the student's current and potential need for goals and objectives pertaining to this skill as well.

Every student should be assessed for using each literary medium. It should not be assumed that a student could best use any one literary medium. Most students will learn best using a variety of literary mediums contingent upon the task they are presented. For each of the following categories, suggestions are given to test the usefulness of particular literary media.

When selecting the most productive literary medium consider:

Print

_ the distance at which materials are held;
_ the ability to see the whole word as opposed to reading the word letter by letter;
_ the length of time able to sustain the reading task;
_ the ability to use print for recreational and pleasure reading;
_ the use of print giving the student independence and functional life skills;
_ the student's ability to write on a comparable level as s/he reads; or

Large Print

_ the increase in print size correlates to an increase in recognition skills;
_ the increase in print size enables entire word vs. individual letter recognition;
_ the increase in print size reduces eye strain and/or fatigue;
_ the increase in print size increases the time focus is maintained on a task;
_ the increase in print size is applicable to real life situations (ability to “function” outside of the classroom);
_ the increase in print size provides access to recreational and pleasure reading;
_ the increase in print size enables the student to read on a comparable level as s/he writes; or

Braille

_ the use of braille increases reading speed and comprehension;
_ the use of braille enables the student to read on a comparable level as s/he writes;
_ the use of braille will provide the student skills necessary for future independence (ie: progressive loss of vision);
_ the use of braille provides access to recreational and pleasure reading;
_ the use of braille will be a benefit skill in addition to use of print or large print.

Functional Braille

In some cases, a basic understanding of braille will allow students in school and as future adults to perform many tasks that would otherwise be impossible. This may be necessary for students with multiple impairments or those for whom reading is not pragmatic. Functional braille is comparable to a student learning survival words or gaining a working knowledge of basic signs and symbols seen in everyday life experiences.

When considering the possibility of functional braille for a student, consider:

_ the benefit(s) gained from a basic understanding of braille or other symbols;
_ the ability to perform basic life skills with the assistance of braille; and
_ the need to learn to recognize particular words for mobility purposes (elevator usage, bathroom markings, etc.).

Auditory

A student should learn either print or braille whenever possible even if s/he shows preference for auditory means. Nonetheless, if a student is visually impaired, the importance of auditory learning should always be stressed no matter which literary medium is selected. This is particularly true when college is an option for the student. Post-secondary students access a vast majority of their course materials through an auditory format. If the student is unable to use either print or braille due to additional disability(ies), auditory learning may be the only literary medium used.

When looking at the use of auditory medium, consider:

_ the ability to comprehend text in a more expedient manner;
_ the ability to use auditory texts for pleasure reading;
_ the ability to use auditory means for reinforcing skills already learned; and
_ the use of auditory skills for lengthy reading assignments.

Appendix C lists additional information regarding literary medium assessment.


Experimentation with Adaptive Equipment or Assistive Technology

The world of technology has greatly expanded opportunities and accessibility to information for people with disabilities. There are many types of devices made specifically for use with individuals who are blind or visually impaired, but there are also many types of equipment which may be modified for use with a specific type of visual impairment. It is usually best to start with “ low tech ” items and see whether minor adjustments will assist the student rather than going out and purchasing an expensive piece of equipment which may not be appropriate to meet the student's needs. The best way to select a piece of equipment is to try it out with the individual who will be using it to see whether or not it meets his or her individual needs. Whichever type of equipment or technology used, it should permit the student to use it independently while furthering his or her educational goals and keep them on par with their peers. Consult your district's assistive technology assessment procedures for additional information in this area.

The following questions should be considered when selecting a piece of adaptive equipment or assistive technology.

_ Is the student able to hold and independently use a magnifier?
_ Does the student have sufficient fine motor control which would enable him/her to develop keyboarding skills?
_ Are the student's auditory processing skills such that speech-output would be a viable alternative to use with the student?
_ Does the student have sufficient eye/hand coordination to use adaptive equipment such as a closed circuit television?
_ Is the student's cognitive functioning such that sophisticated types of computer equipment are an option?
_ Is the student's visual acuity such that enlarged print or an enlarged screen on a computer will be sufficient for the student?
_ Will the use of adaptive equipment assist the student in achieving his or her educational goals?

Appendix D lists additional information regarding adaptive equipment and assistive technology.

When one door of happiness closes, another opens; but
often we look so long at the closed door that we do not
see the one which has been opened for us.

Helen Keller


On-going Assessment of Selected Medium

Once a medium has been selected for the student, there should be a continual evaluation of whether it is viable for the student. The triennial evaluation would be a normal time for one to do a formal evaluation of the student's current literacy. However, informal assessments may occur throughout the school year. When evaluating the usefulness of the selected literacy medium, one should not forget to look at the student's:

_ reading comprehension level;
_ independent reading level;
_ mastery reading level; and
_ frustration reading level;
_ auditory comprehension level; and
_ writing speed and efficacy.

There are numerous types of assessments available commercially. Many of these may easily be adapted for use with a student who has already learned the basics of reading and writing. Appendix E provides sources for reading assessment.

When evaluating the student's independent writing ability one should look at their ability to complete educational assignments as well as writing grocery lists, jotting down telephone messages, writing down appointments or classroom assignments and other daily activities. An on-going assessment of a student's ability to write and take notes may be accomplished via:

_ student interviews/questionnaires;
_ parent interviews/questionnaires;
_ informal observation of the student in situations where the need to take notes or write down messages is presented; and/or
_ obtaining input from other teachers working with the student or primary care-givers.

The ability to listen while writing is essential for students. The teacher of the visually impaired should ensure that they present opportunities for the student to develop this skill to their maximum potential.

In that listening skills are taught and must be refined, an on-going evaluation of the usefulness of the student's auditory functioning should occur. Auditory processing skills may be assessed by:
_ reading a short story or passage and asking the student questions;
_ placing the student in a class where a lecture occurs and asking them about what was presented (checking comprehension); and/or
_ using commercially produced assessments. Appendix F provides a list of resources for assessing listening skills.

One of the more difficult lessons in life to learn is that
we can disagree without being disagreeable.

Anonymous


Additional Factors Which May Impact Literacy

The multidisciplinary team may find other factors relevant to the student's current ability level which will need to be addressed by the case conference committee. A student's literacy potential may or may not be affected by these factors. It will be the responsibility of each individual case conference committee to make that determination. These factors generally fall into three categories: cognitive ability, psychological/behavioral influences, and psychomotor development.

Cognitive Ability
_ The student's capacity to learn and retain what is taught may influence the case conference committee's determination of literary medium.

Psychological/Behavioral Influences
_ The student's maturity level, attitude and motivation for learning, family involvement and support may influence the case conference committee's determination of literary medium.

Psychomotor Development
_ The student's stamina and endurance level, tactile ability, finger dexterity, spatial and fine motor skills may influence the case conference committee's determination of literary medium.

Appendix G lists information regarding the assessment of students with additional challenges.


Summation of Functional Literacy Assessment

Student's Name:
Date(s) of Functional Literacy Assessment:
Assessment Team Members:


I. Clinical Assessment
Are the following required components listed on the optometric or ophthalmological report:
1. Etiology and prognosis of the visual dysfunction? Yes No
2. Secondary or accompanying visual conditions such as nystagmus or photophobia? Yes No
3. Diagnosis and proposed treatment regimen? Yes No
4. Near/distance and corrected/uncorrected acuity measures for left, right, and both eyes? Yes No
5. Measures of visual fields for both eyes, if appropriate? N/A Yes No
6. Recommendations for use of aids, glasses, or special lighting requirements? Yes No
7. Is the optometric or ophthalmological report current (completed within the past 36-months)? Yes No

Any item not completed on the optometric or ophthalmological report or any report more than 36-months old is not compliant with 511 IAC 7-11-13. If there are any components missing, the multidisciplinary team must evaluate them during the functional literacy assessment.


II. Functional Visual Assessment
1. Has the student's visual efficiency been evaluated? Yes No
Comments:
2. Has the student's visual potential been evaluated? Yes No
Comments:
3. Has the student's ability to recognize objects been evaluated? Yes No
Distance recommendations:
Size recommendations:
Lighting recommendations:
Note any color deficits:
4. Has the student's ability to visually discriminate objects been evaluated? Yes No
EVALUATION NOTATIONS REGARDING:
Subtle discrimination:
Obvious discrimination:
Contrast Sensitivity:
Comments:
5. Has the student been observed exploring objects:
Visually? Comments:
Tactually? Comments:
Mouthing? Comments:
Auditory? Comments:
6. If any components of the optometric or ophthalmological report were missing, list results from functional evaluation:


III. Sensory Channel Assessment
For each of the following circle only one: Auditory, Tactual, or Visual.
1. Modality student prefers when learning a new task: A T V
2. Modality student prefers when involved in an independent, pleasure or leisure activity: A T V
3. Modality student prefers when involved in an activity which reinforces a skill which the student has already mastered: A T V
4. Modality student prefers when involved in a high-interest activity: A T V
5. Modality student prefers when involved in a task of which s/he is not very interested: A T V
Comments:


IV. Medium Selection
Complete the following sections based on the literary medium assessment results. If one or more mediums were not assessed, please explain WHY (attach additional sheets if necessary):
Regular-Sized Print
1. The distance at which the student prefers to view printed materials:
2. The size of font necessary at that distance:
3. The length of time the student is able to sustain the reading task with this size font:
4. Will this size of font be accessible for leisure or recreational activities? Yes No
5. Will this size of font be accessible in functional or daily life activities? Yes No
6. When using this size of font, is the student able to copy unfamiliar materials (near distance copying) neatly and in a comparable time frame to his or her sighted peers? Yes No
7. Are the student's written expression skills (using this size font as the source or question provoking the written response), at a comparable level to his or her independent reading level? Yes No
Large Print
8. Is there evidence that the student's ability to recognize objects or letters increases as the size of the print increases? Yes No
9. Does the increase in the size of print result in a decrease in the amount of time it takes the student to recognize words or objects? Yes No
10. Is there evidence of a decrease in eye strain or fatigue with the enlarged print? Yes No
11. Does the increase in print size also increase the amount of time the student can maintain his/her attention on a visual task? Yes No
12. Will this size of font be accessible in functional or daily life activities? Yes No
13. Will this size of font be accessible for leisure or recreational activities? Yes No
14. When using this size of font, is the student able to copy unfamiliar materials (near distance copying) neatly and in a comparable time frame to his or her sighted peers? Yes No
15. Are the student's written expression skills using this size font at a comparable level to his or her independent reading level? Yes No
Braille
16. Will the use of braille result in an increase in reading speed and comprehension level? Yes No
17. Will the student's written expression skills be at a comparable level to his or her independent reading level if braille is the literary medium? Yes No
18. Is there evidence that the student will need braille for future independence (as in the event of progressive vision loss)? Yes No
19. Will this medium be available to the student for leisure and recreational activities? Yes No
20. Is there evidence that braille should be used as an additional literary medium for the student? Yes No
22. Do the results of the evaluation indicate a possible need to have the student learn functional braille instead of Grade 2 braille? Yes No
23. Would braille enable the student to perform basic life skills which s/he would not have access to otherwise? Yes No
24. Is there evidence that the student should learn basic survival skill words in braille? Yes No
Auditory
25. Do the results from the literary medium assessment document an increase in reading comprehension when materials are presented auditorily? Yes No
If YES, would it be practical for the student to use the auditory mode for:
pleasure reading Yes No
reinforcing skills already learned Yes No
reading lengthy or technical assignments Yes No
as an augment to other literary mediums Yes No
V. Additional Factors
1. Do the results of the literary medium assessment indicate a possible need for the student to learn more than one literary medium? Yes No
If YES, Specify:
2. Do the results from the functional vision assessment indicate any prognosis of a progressive visual loss for this student? Yes No
3. Do the results from the multidisciplinary team evaluation indicate any other extenuating circumstances which may affect this student's ability to learn or use a particular literary medium? Yes No
Explain:


VI. Adaptive Equipment and Assistive Technology
1. Is the student able to hold and independently use a magnifier? NA Yes No
2. Does the student have sufficient fine motor control for use with keyboarding skills? Yes No
3. Would speech-output devices be practical for the student? Yes No
4. Is there sufficient eye/hand coordination for using adaptive equipment such as closed-circuit televisions, monocular, etc.? Yes No

The next step in the functional literacy assessment is to share the information you have pulled together in this summary at the student's case conference committee meeting. Whenever possible, the student should be a part of the case conference committee [provided the parent(s) agree to their attendance]. It is at this meeting that a decision is made as to whether the student will be taught using regular sized print, large print, braille, auditory means, or a combination of these. This decision must then be documented in the student's individualized education program ("IEP").

If consensus cannot be reached, either party may request Special Education Mediation and/or a due process hearing. If you have any questions regarding either of these procedures, please contact the Division of Special Education at 317/232-0570.


APPENDICES

APPENDIX A

Additional Resources on
Visual Efficiency and Potential

Academic Therapy Publishers, Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, 28 Commercial Blvd., Novato, California 94948

Apple, L.E. and May, M. Distance Vision and Perceptual Training, American Foundation for the Blind, New York, New York 10001 (1970)

Barraga, N. Teacher's Guide for the Development of Visual Learning Abilities and Utilization of Low Vision, American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085 (1970)

Barraga, N. and Collins, M. Development of Efficiency in "Border Liners" and Low Vision Persons, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 73, 121-126 (1979)

Barraga, N.; Collins, M.; and Hollis. J. Development of Efficiency in Visual Functioning: A Literature Analysis, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 71, 387-391 (1977)

Barraga, N. and Morris, J. Program to Develop Efficiency in Visual Functioning: Source Book on Low Vision, American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085

Bishop, V.E. Making Choices in Functional Vision Evaluations: "Noodles, Needles, and Haystacks", Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 91, 94-99 (1988)

Carter, K. Comprehensive Preliminary Assessments of Low Vision, Understanding Low Vision, American Foundation for the Blind, New York, New York 10001 (1983)

Chase, J. Assessment of the Visually Impaired, Diagnostique, 10(1-4), 144-60, (1985)

Corn, A. Low Vision and Visual Efficiency, In G.T. Scholl: Foundations of Education for Blind and Visually Handicapped Children and Youth: Theory and Practice, pp. 99-117, American Foundation for the Blind, New York, New York 10001 (1986)

Dobson, V.; McDonald, M. and Teller, D. Visual Acuity of Infants and Young Children: Forced-Choice Preferential Looking Procedures, American Orthoptic Journal, 35, 118-125 (1985)

Dobson, V.; Salem, D.; Mayer, D.; Moss, C.; and Sebris, S. Visual Acuity Screening of Children 6 Months to 3 Years of Age, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 26, 1057-1063 (1985)

Florida Department of Education, A Resource Manual for the Development and Evaluation of Special Programs for Exceptional Students, Volume V-E (Project IVEY): Increasing Visual Efficiency, Tallahassee, Florida 32399 (1983)

Friedman, D.B.; Kayne, H.L.; Tallman, C.B.; and Asarkof, J.E. Comprehensive Low Vision: Part One, The New Outlook for the Blind, 68(3), 97-103 (1974)

Friedman, D.B.; Kayne, H.L.; Tallman, C.B.; and Asarkof, J.E. Comprehensive Low Vision: Part Two, The New Outlook for the Blind, 69(5), 207-211 (1974)

Hanson, M. Beyond Tracking, Vision Unlimited, P. O. Box 1591, Bridgeview, Illinois 60455

Harvey, D.J. Enhancement of the Visual Efficiency of Minimally-Sighted Visually Handicapped Children, Collected Original Resources in Education, 2(1), f2-f3 (1978)

Institute of Psychological Research, Stycar Vision Tests, 34 Fleury Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3L 1S9

Knowlton, M. and Normandin, J. A Method for Assessing Acuity in the Natural Environment, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 81, 435-536 (1987)

Lie, I. Relation of Visual Acuity to Illumination, Contrast, and Distance in the Partially Sighted, American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics, 54(8), 528-536 (1977)

Morse, A.R., et al. Vision Screening: A Study of 297 Head Start Children, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 81, 200-203 (1987)

New York Association for the Blind, Flash Card Vision Test, 111 E. 59th Street, New York, New York 10022

New York Association for the Blind, Lighthouse Near Acuity Test, 111 E. 59th Street, New York, New York 10022

Peabody Model Vision Project, Functional Vision Inventory, (#33856), Stoelting Company, 1350 So. Kostner Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60623 (1980)

South Carolina Department of Education, South Carolina Functional Vision Assessment, 1429 Senate Street, Columbia, South Carolina 29201; 803/734-8505 (1995)

Spectrum Products, Inc., Blackhurst Test (both far- and near-point), 17451 Mt. Elliott, Detroit, Michigan 48212

VisTech Consultants, Inc. Teller Acuity Cards, 1372 N. Fairfield Road, Dayton, Ohio 45432-2644

West Coast Optical, Efron Test (both near- and far-point), 925 26th Avenue e., Bradenton, Florida 33508

Western Optical, Allen Preschool Vision Test (far point only), 1200 Mercer Street, Seattle, Washington 98109


APPENDIX B

Additional Resources on
Sensory Channel Assessment

American Printing House for the Blind, Lightbox Activity Guides, Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085

Bishop, V.E. Making Choices in Functional Vision Evaluations: "Noodles, Needles, and Haystacks", Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 91, 94-99 (1988)

Bortner, S. Jones, M. Simon, S. and Goldblatt, S. Sensory Stimulation Kit: A Teacher's Guidebook, American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085 (1978)

Caccamise, F. Assessing the use of Vision in Hearing Impaired Students, American Annals of the Deaf, 126, 361-369 (1981)

Carter K. Assessment of Lighting, in R.T. Jose's Understanding Low Vision, American Foundation for the Blind, New York, New York 10001 (1983)

Cress, P.J. Sensory Assessment Manual, Kansas University, Lawrence, Burea of Child Research (1988)

Fraser, B. and Chapman, E. Children with Sensory Defects in School, Special Education: Forward Trends, 10(4), 37-41 (1983)

Friedland, B.Z. and Knight, M.S. Brightness Sensitivity and Preference in Deaf-Blind Children, American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 78, 323-330 (1973)

Koenig, A.J. and Holbrook, M.C. Determining the Reading Medium for Students with Visual Impairments: A Diagnostic Teaching Approach, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 83, 296-302 (1989)

Koenig, A.J. and Holbrook, M.C. Determining the Reading Medium for Visually Impaired Students via Diagnostic Teaching, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 85, 61-68 (1991)

Koenig, A.J. and Holbrook M.C. Use of Sensory Channels, pages 21-27 of Learning Media Assessment of Students with Visual Impairments: A Resource Guide for Teachers, Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, Austin, Texas 78756-3494 (1993)

Koenig, A.J. Sanspree, M.J. and Holbrook, M.C. Determining the Reading Medium for Students with Visual Handicaps, Council for Exceptional Children, Division for the Visually Handicapped Position Paper

Mangold, S. and Mangold, P. Selecting the Most Appropriate Primary Learning Medium for Students with Functional Vision, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 83, 294-296 (1989)

Nora, K. Reaching to Sound, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 74, 163-166 (1980)

Roessing, L.J. Functional Vision: Criterion-Referenced Checklists, in S. Mangold's A Teachers' Guide to the Special Educational Needs of Blind and Visually Handicapped Children, American Foundation for the Blind, New York, New York 10001 (1982)

Stoelting Company, Functional Vision Inventory, Peabody Model Vision Project (#33856), 1350 So. Kostner Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60623 (1980)

Swassing, R.H. and Barbe, W.B. Swassing-Barbe Modality Index, children and adults, Zaner-Bloser Company (1981)

Wright, S. A Response to Ultraviolet Light: Some Considerations for Vision Stimulation, Education of the Visually Handicapped, 19, 71-75 (1987)


APPENDIX C

Additional Resources on
Assessing Literary Mediums

Bishop, V.E. Making Choices in Functional Vision Evaluations: "Noodles, Needles, and Haystacks", Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 91, 94-99 (1988)

Braden, R.A.; Ed. Art, Science, and Visual Literacy: Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association, Virgina Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061-0232 (1993)

Caton, H.; Ed. Print and Braille Literacy: Selecting Appropriate Learning Media, American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085 (1991)

Caton, H.; Ed. Tools for Selecting Appropriate Learning Media, American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085 (1994)

Council of Executives of American Residential Schools for the Visually Handicapped ( "COSBE") Literacy for Blind and Visually Impaired School-age Students, RE:view, 22, 159-163 (1990)

Fry, E. Fry's Readability Graph: Clarifications, Validity, and Extension to 17, Journal of Reading, 21, 242-252 (1977)

Harley, R.K. and Lawrence, G.A. Visual Impairment in the Schools, Charles C. Thomas Publications, Springfield, Illinois (1984)

Kalin, M. and McAvoy, R. The Influence of Choice on the Acquisition and Retention of Learning Materials in Different Modes of Instruction, Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (1973)

Koenig, A.J. A Framework for Understanding the Literacy of Individuals with Visual Impairments, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 86, 277-284 (1992)

Koenig, A.J. and Holbrook, M.C. Determining the Reading Medium for Students with Visual Impairments: A Diagnostic Teaching Approach, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 83, 296-302 (1989)

Koenig, A.J. and Holbrook, M.C. Determining the Reading Medium for Visually Impaired Students via Diagnostic Teaching, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 85, 61-68 (1991)

Mangold, S. The Mangold Developmental Program of Tactile Perception and Braille Letter Recognition, Exceptional Teaching Aids, Castro Valley, California (1977)

Mangold, S. and Mangold, P. Selecting the Most Appropriate Primary Learning Medium for Students with Functional Vision, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 83, 294-296 (1989)

Mikulecky, L. Job Literacy: The Relationship Between School Preparation and Workplace Actuality, Reading Research Quarterly, 17, 400-419 (1982)

Mullen, E.A. Decreased Braille Literacy: A Symptom of a System in Need of Reassessment, RE:view, 22, 164-169 (1990)

Rex, E.J. Issues Related to Literacy of Legally Blind Learners, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 92 , 306-313 (1989)

Schroeder, F. Literacy: The Key to Opportunity, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 83, 290-293 (1989)

Smith, C.B. Emergent Literacy - An Environmental Concept, Reading Teacher, 42, 528 (1989)

Stephens, O. Braille: Implications for Living, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 83(6) (1989)

Stratton, J.M. and Wright, S. On the Way to Literacy: Early Experiences for Young Visually Impaired Children, RE:view, 23, 55-63 (1991)

Walters, K.; Daniell, B.; and Trachsel, M. Formal and Functional Approaches to Literacy, Language Arts, 64, 855-868 (1987)


APPENDIX D

Additional Resources on
Adaptive Equipment and Assistive Technology

Ashcroft, S.C. and Young, M. Microcomputers for Visually Impaired and Multihandicapped Persons, Journal of Special Education Technology, 4, 24-27 (1981)

Bekiares, S.E. Technology for the Handicapped: Selection and Evaluation of Aids and Devices for the Visually Impaired, Library Hi Tech, 21, 57-61 (1984)

Brilliant, R. Magnification in Low Vision Aids Made Simple, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 77, 169-171 (1983)

Carter, K. Assessment of Lighting, in R.T. Jose's Understanding Low vision, American Foundation for the Blind, New York, New York 10001 (1983)

Computer Resources for People with Disabilities: A Guide to Exploring Today's Assistive Technology, Exceptional Parent, Department EP9508, P. O. Box 8045, Brick, New Jersey 08723, HP087OD

Cotter, E. and McCarty, E. Technology for the Handicapped: Kurzweil and Viewscan, Library Hi Tech, 63-67 (1983)

Donath, M. et al. Employing Technology: Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Rehabilitation Technology, Minneapolis, ERIC Document Reproduction Service # ED 274 773 (1986)

Ferrell, K.A. A Second Look at Sensory Aids in Early Childhood, Education of the Visually Handicapped, 16, 83-101 (1984)

(The) Illustrated Directory of Disability Products, Exceptional Parent, Department EP9508, P. O. Box 8045, Brick, New Jersey 08723, TP026OD

Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities ( “ICCYD” ), Academy for Educational Development, Inc. Washington DC

Mack, C. The Impact of Technology on Braille Literacy, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 83, 314 (1989)

Murphy, H.J. Computer Technology and Persons with Disabilities: Proceedings of the Conference, California State University, Northridge, Office of Disabled Student Services (1985)

Raimondi, S.L. et al. Comprehensive Assistive Technology Curriculum Outline: A Functional Student-Centered Approach, Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, Virginia (1990)

Roehl, J.E.; Ed. Computers for the Disabled, Proceedings of the Discovery ‘83 Conference in Minneapolis, MN, Wisconsin University-Stout Vocational Rehabilitation Institute (1983)


APPENDIX E

Additional Resources on
Reading Assessments

Adams, O.F. and McCreery, L. Learning to Read Again, British Journal of Visual Impairment, 6(1), 19-20 (1988)

Bader, L.A. Instructional Adjustments to Vision Problems, Reading Teacher, 37(7), 566-569 (1984)

CTBS Readiness Test, grades K-1.3, CTB/McGraw-Hill Publications (1977)

Downing, J. and Thackray, D. Reading Readiness Inventory, ages 4-7, Hodder & Stoughton Educational [England] (1976)

Eldridge, L. Comp. is for Reading, Library of Congress, Library Service to Blind and Physically Handicapped Children, Washington, DC (1985)

Hinds, L.R. Rethinking Directions in Reading Diagnosis, Part III, Journal of Clinical Reading: Research and Programs, 2(1) 1-8 (1986)

Reading Yardsticks, grades K-8 (9 levels), Riverside Publishing Company (1981)

Umansky, W. et al. The Dawn of Development: A Guide for Educating Visually Impaired Young Children, Volume I: Assessment, Georgia Academy for the Blind, Georgia University, Athens, and Division for Exceptional Children (1980)


APPENDIX F

Additional Resources on
Listening Skills Assessments

Arlt, P.B. Illinois Children's Language Assessment Test, ages 3-6, Interstate Printers & Publishers, Incorporated (1977)

Beale, A.V. Are You Listening? Assessing and Improving Your Listening Skills, The Journal for Middle Level and High School Administrators, 74(524), 88-94 (1990)

Brimer, M.A. The Listening For Meaning Test, ages 3-18.11, Educational Evaluation Enterprises [England], (1982)

CTBS Readiness Test, grades K-1.3, CTB/McGraw-Hill Publications (1977)

Gnagey, P. and Gnagey, T. How A Child Learns, manual is entitled: Classroom Analysis of Learning Skills and Disabilities: An Observational Approach, Facilitation House Publishing, (1983)

Hohl, S. and Edwards, B.C. Listening Comprehension, grades 1-3 (1 form, 43-pages), Educators Publishing Service, Incorporated (1976)

McNeil, M.R. and Prescott, T.E. Token Test (Revised), PRO-ED Publications (1978)

Wilkinson, A.; Stratta, L. and Dudley, P. Learning through Listening, ages 10-11, 13-14, and 17-18 (3 levels). Macmillan Education [England] (1980)


APPENDIX G

Additional Resources on
Assessing Students with Additional Challenges

Cross, P.; Spellman, C.; DeBriere, T.; Sizemore, A.; Northam, J.; and Johnson, J. Vision Screening for Persons with Severe Handicaps, Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 6, 41-49 (1981)

Duckman, R.H. and Selenow, A. Use of Forced Preferential Looking for Measurement of Visual Acuity in a Population of Neurologically Impaired Children, American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics, 60, 817-821 (1983)

Erhardt, R.P. A Developmental Visual Assessment for Children with Multiple Handicaps, Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 7, 84-101 (1988)

Ferrell, K.A. Reach out and Teach, American Foundation for the Blind, New York, New York 10001 (1985)

Forsstrom, A. and von Hofsten, C. Visually Directed Reaching of Children with Motor Impairments, Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 24, 653-661 (1982)

Hall, A.; et al. Specific Visual Assessment Techniques for Multiply Handicapped Persons, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 85, 23-29 (1991)

Jose, R.T.; Smith, A.; and Shane, K. Evaluating and Stimulating Vision in the Multiply Impaired, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 74 (1980)

Levine, M.D. and Schneider, E.A. Pediatric Examination of Educational Readiness ( "PEER" ), ages 4-6, 79 pages - 28 rating scales, Educators Publishing Service, Incorporated (1982)

Mangold, S.; Mangold, R.; and Mangold, P. Informal Assessment of Developmental Skills for Visually Handicapped Students, Practice Report from American Foundation for the Blind, New York, New York 10001 (1978)

Morse, M.T. Augmenting Assessment Procedures for Children with Severe Multiple Handicaps and Sensory Impairments, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 86, 73-77 (1992)

Northwestern Illinois Association for Hearing, Vision, and Physically Handicapped Children, Low Functioning Vision Assessment Kit, 145 Fisk Avenue, DeKalb, Illinois 60115

PRISE Issues and Happenings in the Education of the Mentally Retarded, (Pennsylvania Resources and Information Center for Special Education) Reporter PRISE, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania (1984)

Roessing, L.J. Functional Vision: Criterion-Referenced Checklists, in S. Mangold's A Teachers' Guide to the Special Educational Needs of Blind and Visually Handicapped Children, American Foundation for the Blind, New York, New York 10001 (1982)

Smith, A.J. and Cote, K.S. Look At Me: A Resource Manual for the Development of Residual Vision in Multiply Impaired Children, Pennsylvania College of Optometry Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1982)

Stoelting Company, Functional Vision Inventory, Peabody Model Vision Project (#33856), 1350 So. Kostner Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60623 (1980)


REFERENCES

Spungin, S.J. Braille Literacy Issues for Consumers and Providers, The Educator, July 1990, pp. 13-20 (1990)

American Printing House for the Blind, Developing Visual Efficiency: A Bibliography American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085 (1989)

Koenig, A.J. and Holbrook, M.C. Learning Media Assessment of Students with Visual Impairments: A Resource Guide for Teachers, Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, Austin, Texas 78756-3494 (1993)

Caton, H. Editor, Print and Braille Literacy: Selecting Appropriate Learning Media, American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085 (1991)

Pierce, B. Editor, The World Under My Fingers: Personal Reflections on Braille, National Federation of the Blind, Baltimore, Maryland 21230-4998 (1995)